75th Pennsylvania Infantry Volunteers 
Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies

O.R.-- SERIES I--VOLUME 15 [S# 15]
MAY 15--JUNE 17, 1862.--Operations in the Shenandoah Valley.
No. 47.--Report of Col. Francis Mahler, Seventy-Fifth Pennsylvania Infantry, of the battle of Cross Keys.
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                                                            HDQRS. SEVENTY-FIFTH REGT. PENNSYLVANIA VOLS.,
                                                            Mount Jackson, June 1 [?], 1862.

        Having been informed that serious charges have been made in regard to the conduct of the regiment which I have the honor to command, in the engagement of Sunday last, by General Blenker, it is due to the honor of my regiment that I should report the part that we took in the action. While in the support of the Seventy-fourth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers and Fifty-fourth New York Volunteers, on the extreme left of the line, I was met by General Blenker and ordered to the front, advising me at the same time to be very cautious not to fire, as the Thirty-fifth (former number of the Seventy-fourth)was right in our front, and the Eighth New York were removing their wounded from the woods on our right. Arriving on the top of a knoll I perceived that the Seventy fourth engaged a superior force, and seeing that their line of skirmishers were falling back I halted and immediately ordered <ar15_675> my two flank companies to relieve them, which left me only foul companies, about 150 men in all, having previously detached two companies by order of General Bohlen for the support of Captain Wiedrich's battery. At the same time, in order to shelter the reserve from the galling fire which was being poured into us, I ordered them to fall back a few paces, to take advantage of the sloping ground until the moment for action should arrive. The enemy at this time making an attack to outflank us, we, in concert with the Fifty-fourth New York, were ordered to the left, to deploy in the woods.
        The Fifty-fourth were in advance of us, and had opened their fire just as we arrived on the ground. At this moment our battery was obliged to retire from the attack of a force that deployed from the woods, which General Blenker led me to suppose were occupied by the Eighth New York, and before I was able to open fire I received the order' to fall back. I deny totally that my regiment ran away, as charged by General Blenker, and will say for them that they behaved themselves worthy of a better opportunity.
        I have the honor to be, respectfully, yours,

                                                            F. MAHLER,
                                                                    Commanding Seventy-fifth Pennsylvania Volunteers.

                                                            General H. BOHLEN,
                                                                    Commanding Third Brigade.

Correspondence, orders, and returns relating specially to operations in Northern Virginia, West Virginia, and Maryland from March 17 to September 2, 1862.

                                                            HEADQUARTERS THIRD BRIGADE, BLENKER'S DIVISION,
                                                            Berry's Ferry, April 15, 1862.

                                                            Brig. Gen. Louis BLENKER,
                                                                    Commanding Division:

GENERAL: It is my painful duty to report to you that a serious accident occurred to-day in crossing the Shenandoah. Three regiments of my brigade had crossed in safety with their ambulances and staff horses on the floats we had improvised with our limited means, and one company of the Fortieth Regiment (Seventy-fifth Pennsylvania Volunteers) had already passed the water in perfect safety on the old ferry-boat, which we had discovered 2½ miles below here, and which we repaired this morning, when the second company of about 60 men and officers, on reaching the strongest part of the current, by pressing too much forward, caused the water to run into the boat, and commenced hauling on the ropes, running the boat against the current and increasing the pressure forward, There was no danger whatever of the boat sinking, but a panic struck the men and :they rushed to the starboard side, causing it to keel over, precipitating its entire contents into the river. Only two small skiffs were at hand to save the drowning men, who were rapidly carried down the stream.
        As far as can be ascertained 40 lives have been lost, amongst which Captain Wilson, brigade commissary; Capt. Christian Wyck, Seventy-fifth Pennsylvania Volunteers, and Lieutenant Winter, Seventy-fifth Pennsylvania Volunteers.
        A list of the non-commissioned officers and privates will be furnished as soon as a correct one can be made out.
        No blame can be attached to any one. The accident was caused by a sudden panic.


                                                            H. BOHLEN,
                                                                    Colonel, Commanding Third Brigade.

APRIL 27-MAY 6, 1863.--The Chancellorsville Campaign.
No. 256.--Report of Col. Wladimir Krzyzanowski, Fifty-eighth New York Infantry, commanding Second Brigade.
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                                                            NEAR BROOKE'S STATION, VA.,
                                                            May 15, 1863.

SIR: I have the honor to submit to you the following report about the engagement of May 2, near Wilderness Run, Va.:
        About 11 a.m., May 2, I received your orders to withdraw two regiments from the position my brigade had occupied since the previous day, they being at that time placed in reserve fronting to the south. The position which was assigned to the two regiments was a reserve for the First Division, and, fronting to the west, partly formed the extreme right wing of the whole army. The Twenty-sixth Wisconsin and the Seventy-fifth Pennsylvania Volunteers were ordered to take this position.
        About 11 p.m. I received orders to detail one regiment of my brigade for picket duty, to relieve the Eighty-second Illinois Volunteers, for which duty I ordered the Seventy-fifth Pennsylvania Volunteers, with the exception of about 60 men, which were in excess of the number required for picket duty. Of these, 45 men were detailed to form part of the skirmishing line. To replace the regiment thus detailed, I ordered the Fifty-eighth New York Volunteers, which still occupied the place assigned to it the day before. The disposition of my troops before the engagement was, consequently, as follows (see annexed sketch):(*) The Seventy-fifth Pennsylvania Volunteers on picket, except 60 men; One hundred and nineteenth New York Volunteers on the left wing of the First Brigade, Third Division, deployed in line along the Orange Court-House Plank road, fronting south, and the Twenty-sixth Wisconsin and Fifty-eighth New York Volunteers in the position above indicated, fronting west. I remained with my staff with the two last-named regiments. About 400 paces in front of the latter two regiments, the skirmish line of 80 men of the Twenty- sixth Wisconsin Volunteers and 45 men from the Seventy-fifth Pennsylvania Volunteers; the Twenty-sixth regiment Wisconsin Volunteers in close column to the center on the extreme right, and the Fifty-eighth New York Volunteers on the left, with deploying distance between them.
        About 6 p.m. firing was heard in front toward the left of my line, <ar39_667> and but a short time afterward I discovered a part of the First Division coming down upon the left of my troops in the greatest disorder. Meanwhile the firing drew nearer. I inquired into the cause of the disorder, and was informed by officers and men of that division that the enemy came in such force and was pushing so rapidly that they were obliged to fall back. My skirmishers retained their position, and were not engaged until some minutes afterward, when, after some resistance, the enemy's force obliged them to fall back upon the regiments, which was done in good order, as also the deploying into line of the latter.
        It appeared, however, that the enemy came upon our lines in an oblique direction, completely outflanking my forces on the right, and messing in front of them, in consequence of which it became necessary to withdraw; but, not desiring to take the responsibility, I sent one of my staff officers, Lieutenant [Louis H.] Orleman, to you, with a request for re-enforcements, but I received orders from you to fall back to the border of the woods on the right of the intrenchments, which woods, being very thick, caused the wing companies of the regiments to be detached. When the intrenchments were abandoned, my troops fell back upon the line occupied by General Berry's division. Here I was joined by the Eighty-second Ohio Volunteers, Colonel Robinson, part of the Eighty-second Illinois Volunteers, and the One hundred and fifty-seventh New York Volunteers, Colonel Brown. We occupied this position for upward of one hour. The firing having by that time been somewhat discontinued, and my forces being separated from the rest of the corps, I concluded to make proper efforts to join the rest of the corps near a large farm house north of Chancellorsville, in which I succeeded. Nearly one hour later I received orders to proceed to Chancellorsville, and there join the remainder of the troops.
        As to the behavior of the troops under my command, I must confess that they behaved well and to my satisfaction. The Twenty-sixth Regiment Wisconsin Volunteers, as well as the Fifty-eighth New York Volunteers, stood their ground until it became untenable. The officers exerted themselves to cheer their men.
        Of the One hundred and nineteenth New York Volunteers I cannot mention much, from the fact that this regiment was detached from the rest of the brigade. I have ascertained that it fought well.
        Of the Seventy- fifth Pennsylvania Volunteers, the skirmishers reflect credit on their regiment.
        It would be doing injustice to many if I should particularly mention the name of any line officer. I therefore leave such to the respective regimental commanders. I cannot, however, refrain from mentioning the names of Col. W. H. Jacobs, Lieutenant-Colonel Boebel, Major Baetz, and Adjutant Schlosser, all of the Twenty-sixth Wisconsin Volunteers, who led their men to the best of their abilities and with coolness; also Capt. E. Koenig, of the Fifty- eighth New York Volunteers, who, after Captain Braun, its commander, had been killed, took command of the regiment.
        Of Col. E. Peissner, One hundred and nineteenth New York Volunteers, I can speak only with admiration, he having cheered his men at the moment he fell, as I am told by many of his officers.
        Lieutenant-Colonel Lockman, of the same regiment, is said to have acted bravely and with coolness.
        Respecting the officers on my staff, I have reason to express my entire satisfaction, they having executed my orders with the greatest promptness, and every one of them has received marks which prove that they have been in the midst of the shower of lead. <ar39_668>

The total loss of the brigade is, as near as can be ascertained, as follows:

Officers and men.     Killed.     Wounded.     Missing.     Total
Officers.                         6                 5                  10             21
Enlisted men                55             189                169           413
Total(*)                        61             194                179           434

I have the honor to be, general, your most obedient servant,

                                                            W. KRZYZANOWSKI,
                                                                    Col., Comdg. 2d Brig., 3d Div., 11th Army Corps.

                                                            Maj. Gen. CARL SCHURZ,
                                                                    Commanding Third Division.

O.R.--SERIES I--VOLUME XXVII/1 [S# 43] -- Gettysburg Campaign
No. 262. -- Report of Maj. August Ledig,
Seventy-fifth Pennsylvania Infantry.

                                                            HDQRS. SEVENTY-FIFTH PENNSYLVANIA VOLUNTEERS,
                                                            July 28, 1863.

SIR: In compliance with an order received from division headquarters to report the recent operations, I send you the following:
        The regiment, with the corps, left camp near Brooke's Station June 12, on account of a threatening invasion of the enemy into Maryland and Pennsylvania. After different marches, we arrived at Emmitsburg, Md., June 29.
        On the 30th, we rested.
        July 1.--At 5 a.m. we left camp, and proceeded to Gettysburg. We arrived there at 1.30 a.m. We were immediately ordered to the north side of the town, where the regiment was placed as follows: On my left (the extreme left of the Second Brigade), the Eighty-second Ohio Volunteers; on my right, the One hundred and nineteenth New York Regiment, in line of battle. Here we received a heavy fire from the enemy's 10-pounder rifled guns, which caused a loss in the regiment of 1 killed and 2 wounded. About 2 o'clock, the whole brigade advanced nearly one-half mile, which was greatly interrupted by fences, which had to be taken down under a heavy fire of musketry from the enemy. When within 100 yards of them, in a wheat-field, we charged upon them and drove them back. We halted, and opened fire on the enemy. The Eighty-second Ohio, on my left, was flanked, and gave way. Col. F. Mahler's horse was shot, but he [The colonel] got up again, and went forward to direct the fire to the left flank, which was now unprotected, and the enemy threatening to cut off our retreat. He was already within 40 yards of our left and rear.
        Colonel Mahler at this moment received a severe wound, and was disabled, so I took the command, and directed at once the fire left-oblique, and began to retreat behind a fence, which I could only pass by the flank, moving my left flank through first, so as to give the enemy battle on my left and front.
        During this short period-say fifteen minutes--I lost 111 killed and wounded.
        I began now to retreat about 200 yards into an orchard. The One hundred and nineteenth New York Regiment, on my right, suffered also heavily from the flank attack, and moved backward also in the garden. I received orders to fall back on the town. Here the Second Division arrived and went into the engagement. Shortly after this, a new line behind the town was ordered, and formed by my regiment in the best of order. I was ordered in a corn-field behind a stone wall, below the Evergreen Cemetery, the Eighty-second Ohio on my right, the First Brigade on my left.
        On July 2 and 3, the regiment was not actively engaged. I lost here 3 men killed and wounded by the heavy bombardment.
        On July 5, I was ordered to march to Emmitsburg; from there to South Mountain Pass.
        On July 8, we passed through South Mountain Pass, and arrived at Boonsborough, where we were drawn up in line of battle. Next morning, July 9, I was ordered to fall behind the town, in order to get a rest. <ar43_746>
        The Sixth Corps having relieved us at 10 a.m. July 10. I was ordered to march toward Hagerstown, and arrived at 5 o'clock within 3 miles of Hagerstown, where we took position on the right of the turnpike.
        On July 11, we rested.
        On July 12, we marched toward Hagerstown, within one-half mile of it, and, taking position, during the night rifle-pits were put up by my men.
        On July 14, we marched toward Williamsport.
        On July 15, marched back to Middletown.
        On July 16, marched to Berlin. There we rested two days.
        On July 19, early in the morning, left camp, and crossed the Potomac River, and marched to Hamilton, Va.
        On July 20, marched to Mountville.
        On July 21 and 22, rested.
        On July 23, we marched to New Baltimore.
        On July 24, two patrols of my regiment reconnoitered about 2 miles in front of our picket lines.
        On July 25, we marched to Warrenton Junction and made camp. The men are greatly fatigued; hardly able for another campaign at present.

I remain, your most obedient servant,

                                                            AUGUST LEDIG,
                                                                    Major, Commanding Regiment.

                                                            Col. W. KRZYZANOWSKI,
                                                                    Commanding Second Brigade.


                                                            HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND,
                                                            Chattanooga, April 24, 1864.

                                                            Maj. Gen. JOSEPH HOOKER,
                                                            Commanding Twentieth Army Corps:

GENERAL: Inclosed I send you copies of telegrams just received from Major-General Rousseau, which show that he has sufficient force to guard the railroad from Nashville to Chattanooga, leaving garrisons at Tullahoma, Stevenson, and Bridgeport, in addition to <ar59_472> the one at Murfreesborough, which is already fixed. One regiment is to be stationed at Tullahoma, one at Stevenson, and two at Bridgeport. The major-general commanding directs that you put him in position as quickly as possible, and relieve and bring to the front those of the other division now on the line of the route in accordance with the schedule Sent you. In addition to that list there has been added a block-house at Estill Springs, 20 men, and one at the wood-yard between there and Tullahoma of 20 men, making a force of 1,400 men required to man the block-houses from Nashville to Chattanooga. One regiment can be withdrawn from the garrison of Nashville and placed farther down the road.
        I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

                                                            HENRY STONE,
                                                                    Assistant Adjutant-General.

[Inclosure No. 1.]

                                                            NASHVILLE, April 23, 1864.
                                                                    Brig. Gen. W. D. WHIPPLE,

Chief of Staff:

        Coburn's brigade left here for the front on Tuesday morning last, Colonel Utley commanding. It is now on the march between this and General Hooker's headquarters. The effective-force report of the regiments in my division was sent on the 18th, just the date of your previous dispatch. Another was sent to Major-General Hooker this day. I have not any report from the Fifty-eighth New York nor the Seventy-fifth Pennsylvania Regiments, transferred from the Eleventh Corps to my division.

The following is the strength of regiments:

18th Michigan                             625
102d Ohio Volunteer Infantry    293
13th Wisconsin                           498
73d Indiana                                 206
10th Tennessee                          755

This includes Granger's brigade. The unassigned regiments are--

115th Ohio Volunteer Infantry     589
31st Wisconsin                              570
23d Wisconsin                               647
71st Ohio                                       334
106th Ohio                                     237
83d Illinois                                     483
68th New York                              334

These are the aggregate, and as soon as I hear from the Fifty-eighth New York and Seventy-fifth Pennsylvania I will telegraph you.

                                                            LOVELL H. ROUSSEAU,

[Inclosure No. 2.]

                                                            NASHVILLE, April 24, 1864.
                                                                    Brigadier-General WHIPPLE,
                                                                            Chief of Staff:

Effective strength of the Seventy-fifth Pennsylvania, commissioned officers, 14; enlisted men, 229.

                                                            LOVELL H. ROUSSEAU,

JANUARY 16-FEBRUARY 20, 1865.--Scouts about Franklin, Tenn.
Reports of Lieut. Col. Alvin Matzdorff, Seventy-fifth Pennsylvania Infantry.
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                                                            HEADQUARTERS U.S. FORCES,
                                                            Franklin, Tenn., February 11, 1865.

GENERAL: I have the honor to submit to you herewith the report of two scouting expeditions ordered by me to clear the neighborhood of the bushwhackers which infest it:
        On the 16th of January I ordered Lieut. C. Haserodt, with a squad of my mounted infantry, to secure the arrest of John Burke, a notorious bushwhacker, who was reported to be with his gang on the Wilson pike, fifteen miles from Franklin. At the house of a Mrs. Cherry Lieutenant Haserodt fell in with five mounted men, whom he ordered to surrender, three of whom did so at once, but the other two took refuge in the house. On asking Mrs. Cherry whether she had seen said Burke she replied she had not, "but you are welcome to search my house." Lieutenant Haserodt then ordered Sergeant Mehring and two men to search the upper part of the house, but before they reached the upper rooms they were fired upon and Sergeant Mehring was fatally wounded.(*) Burke and another man by the name of Birch were both wounded, but Burke made his escape through a window in the back part of the house. Another of the band was killed instantly. After the affray Lieutenant Haserodt ordered the inmates to leave the house and set fire to the house.
        On the 29th of January I ordered Lieutenant Briggs to proceed with twenty mounted men to the neighborhood of Spring Hill, Maury County, in search of a band of guerrillas who were reported to be there stealing horses and committing other depredations. Lieutenant Briggs with his men struck their trail three miles east of Spring Hill and followed it up the country to Leiper's Creek, in Williamson County. They came up with Bob Riggs' gang (twelve in number) at Edmund Dodson's, on Leiper's Creek. They fled at the approach of my men, who pursued them three miles up the creek and succeeded in killing the leader, Bob Riggs, and another of his band, whose name could not be ascertained. I regret that the small force at my disposal and the <ar103_8> numerous other duties required of them prevents me to scour the country more frequently, which should be done almost every day to exterminate the bushwhackers now infesting this neighborhood, and who always commit their depredations when they know my men are otherwise employed.
        I have the honor, general, to remain, most respectfully, your obedient servant,

                                                            A. MATZDORFF,
                                                                    Lieut. Col. Seventy-fifth Pennsylvania Veteran Vols., Comdg. Post.

                                                            Brig. Gen. R. W. JOHNSON,
                                                                    Comdg. Defenses on Tennessee and Alabama Railroad.


                                                            HEADQUARTERS U.S. FORCES,
                                                            Pulaski, Tenn., February 12, 1865.

        Respectfully forwarded for information of the major-general commanding the District of Tennessee.
        I shall increase the mounted force at Franklin by 100 men.

                                                            R. W. JOHNSON,


                                                            HEADQUARTERS U.S. FORCES,
                                                            Franklin, Tenn., February 20, 1865.

GENERAL: I have the honor to report that immediately on receipt of the information that the train had been attacked by guerrillas on the 16th instant, I ordered a party of fifty mounted men, under command of Captains Kolomb and Hoffmann, to the pursuit of the gang. After scouring the country pretty thoroughly to beyond Duck River, the expedition returned on the afternoon of the 19th instant, having succeeded in killing two most notorious desperadoes, named Nathan Eazell and ---- Lyons, and recapturing two horses and one mule that were stolen from this post. The accompanying letter(*) was found on the person of Lyons, while Eazell, one of Forrest's original cutthroats, had in his pocket the also inclosed pass and oath of amnesty.(*) Eazell was also recognized as one of the gang who preyed in the vicinity of Hollow Tree Gap some ten days ago, and who robbed Mr. Brown, telegraph repairer. Every honest and peaceable resident of this neighborhood will feel a great relief that the daring career of these outlaws has thus been terminated. Major Smith, of the Eighth Michigan Cavalry, who left here with his command this morning, will report to you in due time, and on the way to Pulaski have a lookout for the bushwhackers that infest the country about Duck River. In conclusion, I would most respectfully request you to have Captain Hoffmann and command remain here for some time yet, as only the utmost vigilance and constant scouring of the country will rid the same of the bushwhackers that now infest it; but with the assistance of Captain Hoffmann and his men I flatter myself to make this place a little too hot for bushwhackers. I have the honor, general, to remain, most respectfully, your obedient servant,

                                                            A. MATZDORFF,
                                                                    Lieut. Col. 75th Pennsylvania Veteran Vol. Infty., Comdg. Post.

                                                            Brig. Gen. R. W. JOHNSON,
                                                                    Comdg. Defenses on Tennessee and Alabama Railroad.