Offical Records from the War of the Rebellion (Full)


O.R.-- SERIES I--VOLUME XXV/1 [S# 39]
APRIL 27-MAY 6, 1863.--The Chancellorsville Campaign.
No. 252.--Report of Maj. Gen. Carl Schurz, U.S. Army, commanding Third Division, with correspondence, &c.

                                                                    CAMP NEAR STAFFORD COURT-HOUSE, VA.,
                                                                    May 12, 1863.

GENERAL:

        About the part taken by the division under my command in the operations of the Army of the Potomac from April 27 to May 6, I beg leave to report as follows:
        I deem it unnecessary to speak of the marches we executed previous to our arrival on the battle-field of May 2, as my division marched along with the corps without any separate action. I will only say that all orders were executed by officers and men with promptness and alacrity, and that the men marched better, were in higher spirits, and endured the fatigues and hardships of the march by night and day more cheerfully than ever before. I have never known my command to be in a more excellent condition. The division arrived at the junction of the Orange Court-House Plank road and the old turnpike in the afternoon of April 30. I was ordered to go into camp, facing west, on the open ground near Hawkins' farm. The disposition I made of my forces is shown on Diagram No. 1.

CAMP OF THE THIRD DIVISION on April 30.
DIAGRAM No. I. [bitmap]

SECOND POSITION OF THE THIRD DIVISION on May 1.
DIAGRAM No. II [bitmap]

        In this position the division remained until noon, May 1, when we received marching orders, which, to the disappointment of the troops, were countermanded immediately afterward. I then was ordered to take a position facing south, connecting with the First Division, under General Devens, on my right, and the Second Division, under General Steinwehr, on my left. I placed General Schimmelfennig's brigade on my right, connecting on his right with General McLean's brigade, of the First Division, and ordered Colonel Krzyzanowski to occupy my left, to connect on his left with Colonel Buschbeck's brigade, of the Second Division. The dispositions I made are shown in detail on Diagram No. 2; in addition to which I have to observe that the two regiments forming my extreme right were ordered by me to be placed in column on the open field immediately on the left of General McLean's brigade, so as to give them liberty of movement, but that they were drawn back behind the fence and deployed in line of battle on the old Turnpike road, as I understand, by special directions from headquarters. Behind my Second Brigade, Colonel Krzyzanowski, I placed a strong reserve, so as to be able to assist Colonel Buschbeck, whose line was at the time very thin. The Eighty-second Ohio I kept farther back, as a general reserve. My pickets were at a suitable distance in front, south of the Plank road, connecting with those of General Devens on the right and General Steinwehr on the left. Captain Dilger's battery was placed at the junction of the two roads, commanding the Plank road, the valley below, and the woods beyond.
        The firing we heard all along the line of the army during the day seemed to indicate that the enemy was feeling our front in its whole length. Toward evening the enemy began to throw shells from two pieces placed on an open space in the woods opposite General Devens' left, but doing no injury. This fire was not replied to by our artillery.
        General Schimmelfennig received the order to send forward one regiment to capture or drive away those pieces. A short but lively skirmish ensued, in which some of our men were wounded, and the officers commanding the expedition returned with the report that the pieces had already been withdrawn. A subsequent reconnaissance proved this to be true. A negro was brought in from a farm near the place where the guns had stood, and reported that he had seen some rebel troops moving westward; but the information he gave us was very indefinite.
        Meanwhile my chief of staff, Major [Ernest F.] Hoffmann, was ordered by you to superintend the construction rifle.pits along our whole front, facing south. Pioneers and fatigue parties worked all night, and at daybreak the rifle.pits were nearly completed. General Schimmelfennig obstructed the wood road in his front, south of the Plank road, with abatis. The night passed off quietly, the troops of my division remaining in the position above indicated.
        Early in the morning of May 2, General Hooker passed along the whole line, and was received by officers and men with great demonstrations of enthusiasm.
        As the general disposition made of the rest of the corps had great influence upon the part taken by my division in the action of the evening, I beg leave to say a few words about the distribution of the forces of the First and Second Divisions in connection with mine. The extreme right was occupied by General Devens' (First) brigade, under Colonel von Gilsa, consisting of the Forty-first, Forty-fifth, and Fifty-fourth New York, and the One hundred and fifty-third Pennsylvania. Part of this brigade (two regiments) was formed at an angle with the old turnpike, fronting nearly west. On the road itself one section of Captain Dieckmann's battery was placed behind an abatis. Colonel von Gilsa's left connected with General McLean's brigade, consisting of the Twenty-fifth, Fifty-fifth, Seventy-fifth, and One hundred and seventh Ohio, and the Seventeenth Connecticut Volunteers. This brigade was formed in line of battle on the old Turnpike road, with one regiment in second line and one detached as a reserve for Colonel von Gilsa. Four pieces of Captain Dieckmann's battery were pieced near General McLean's left, on open and high ground.
        Immediately east of Talley's farm, where General Devens had his headquarters, General McLean's left connected with my right, consisting of the Seventy-fourth Pennsylvania and the Sixty-first Ohio, of General Schimmelfennig's brigade, deployed in line of battle on the road, having an embankment in their front and the thickest kind of pine undergrowth immediately in their rear; on their left the Sixty-eighth New York, of the same brigade, also in line of battle; the sharpshooters of the brigade in the little piece of woods between the two roads east of the open field flanking the line; the Eighty-second Illinois and the One hundred and fifty-seventh New York behind General Schimmelfennig's left, in second line, connecting with General Schimmelfennig's left; the One hundred and nineteenth New York, of my Second Brigade, occupying the southern border of the little piece of woods above mentioned; then Dilger's battery; the Fifty-eighth New York in the church grove; behind the interval the Seventy-fifth Pennsylvania, and farther to the left the Twenty-sixth Wisconsin, in second line, and the Eighty-second Ohio still farther back, as above stated. On the left of Captain Dilger's battery commenced Colonel Buschbeck's brigade, part of which was deployed in the rifle-pits; Captain Wiedrich's battery, from which two pieces had been detached to General Barlow's brigade, stood near Colonel Buschbeck's right on high ground. On the left of Colonel Buschbeck, General Barlow's brigade, with one section of Captain Wiedrich's battery. Farther to the left, troops of other corps. A rifle-pit was constructed, running north and south, on the west of the eminence east of Dowdall's Tavern. The Reserve Artillery, which arrived in the course of the day, was placed on that eminence.
        This position was, in my humble opinion, a good one to move from if the army had followed up the offensive, which, no doubt, had originally been contemplated. As a defensive position it presented a front only moderately strong to resist a parallel attack coming from the south. I say moderately strong, as the line, especially on our right, was very thin, and we had no general reserve. But if this position was intended to protect the right and rear of the army, a look at the map will show that it lacked some of the most essential requisites. Our right wing stood completely in the air, with nothing to lean upon, not even a strong _chelon, and with no reliable cavalry to make reconnaissances, and that, too, in a forest thick enough not to permit any view to the front, flank, or rear, but not thick enough to prevent the approach of the enemy's troops. Our rear was at the mercy of the enemy, who was at perfect liberty to walk right around us through the large gap between von Gilsa's right and the cavalry force which was stationed at Ely's Ford, and which, at all events, had no considerable power of resistance. If it was really the intention that we should act on the defensive and cover the right and rear of the whole army, our right ought to have been drawn back toward the Rapidan, to rest on that river, at or near the mouth of Hunting Run, the corps abandoning so much of the Plank road as to enable it to establish a solid line. As we were actually situated, an attack from the west and northwest could not be resisted for any length of time without a complete change of front on our part. To such a change, especially if it was to be made in haste, the formation of our forces was exceedingly unfavorable.
        It was almost impossible to maneuver some of our regiments under fire of the enemy, hemmed in as they were on the old turnpike by embankments and rifle-pits in front and thick woods in the rear, drawn out in long, deployed lines, giving just room enough for the stacks of arms and a narrow passage; and this old Turnpike road was at the same time the only line of communication we had between the different parts of our front. Such was the position occupied by the Eleventh Corps on May 2.
In the course of the forenoon I was informed that large columns of the enemy could be seen from General Devens' headquarters, moving from east to west on a road running nearly parallel with the Plank road, on a ridge at a distance of about 2 miles or over. I observed them plainly as they moved on. I rode back to your headquarters, and on the way ordered Captain Dilger to look for good artillery positions on the field fronting west, as the troops would, in all probability, have to execute a change of front.
        The matter was largely discussed at your headquarters, and I entertained and expressed in our informal conversations the opinion that we should form upon the open ground we then occupied, with our front at right angles with the Plank road, lining the church grove and the border of the woods east of the open plain with infantry, placing strong echelons behind both wings, and distributing the artillery along the front on ground most favorable for its action, especially on the eminence on the right and left of Dowdall's Tavern. In this position, sweeping the open plains before us with our artillery and musketry, and checking the enemy with occasional offensive returns, we might have been able to maintain ourselves even against superior forces at least long enough to give General Hooker time to take measures according to the exigencies of the moment. Soon afterward we were informed that two divisions of General Sickles' corps were to attack in flank and rear the column of the enemy which we had seen marching, and you were requested to detach one of your brigades for their support. This weakened the force you might have used as a general reserve very materially.
In the absence of orders, but becoming more and more convinced that the enemy's attack would come from the west and fall upon our right and rear, I took it upon my own responsibility to detach two regiments from the second line of my Second Brigade, and to place them in a good position on the right and left of the Ely's Ford road, west of Hawkins' farm, so as to check the enemy if he should attack our extreme right and penetrate through the woods at that point. This was subsequently approved by you. The regiments I selected were the Seventy-fifth Pennsylvania and the Twenty-sixth Wisconsin. The Seventy fifth Pennsylvania had to relieve the pickets of the Second Brigade, and was replaced by the Fifty-eighth New York. The Eighty-second Ohio I placed at some distance behind the left of the Fifty-eighth New York. The disposition of my troops was then as shown on Diagram No. 3, and, no orders reaching me, it remained so until the battle commenced. With these exceptions, no change was made in the position occupied by the corps.
        Brigadier-General Schimmelfennig, commanding my First Brigade, made several reconnaissances in his front and that of General Devens, especially on the Plank road and through the wooded country south of

Position Of The Third Division At The Time Of The Attack On Our Right.
DIAGRAM No. III.[bitmap]

it; but these reconnaissances, made with infantry, were necessarily confined to a limited compass, and brought no other fact to light but that the enemy's skirmishers were found at a distance of 1+ to 2 miles in considerable number.
        Meanwhile we heard General Sickles' artillery, but the firing did not continue long, so that it seemed as if the attack on the flank and rear of that column of the enemy which we had seen marching toward our right had been checked or given up.
        It was between 3 and 4 p.m. when the section of artillery attached to Colonel von Gilsa's brigade gave two discharges, followed by a short musketry fire. We hastened to the front, and received the report that only a few rebel cavalrymen had shown themselves on the old turnpike, and that the artillery had fired without orders. All became quiet again. I ordered General Schimmelfennig to push another reconnaissance up the Plank road. The instructions he received from headquarters were to the effect that he should avoid everything that might bring on an engagement. The reconnoitering party returned after some time with the report that they had heard the yells and shouts of a large number of men behind the enemy's line of skirmishers. The cavalry, which had been attached to your command but a few days before, and whose business it was to clear up our front and flank, repeatedly reported that at some distance from our pickets they had been fired upon, and that then, of course, they could go no farther. Immediately before the enemy rushed upon us, a reconnoitering party of that cavalry went into the woods in front of the Twenty-sixth Wisconsin; returned after about ten minutes, and informed the officers of the Twenty-sixth Wisconsin that it was all right, and then went quietly to rest behind Hawkins' farm.
        It was nearly 6 o'clock when we suddenly heard a sharp artillery and musketry fire on our extreme right. I at once ordered all regiments within my reach to change front. The One hundred and nineteenth New York I took out of its position in the woods, facing south, and formed it near the junction of the Plank road and the old turnpike, facing west. The Sixty-eighth New York received the order to occupy the western edge of the same piece of woods, the southern border of which had been occupied by the One hundred and nineteenth. On the right of the One hundred and nineteenth formed the One hundred and fifty seventh New York, then the Eighty-second Illinois, and farther to the right the Eighty-second Ohio, the latter receiving from me the order to cover the left of the Fifty-eighth New York, to fire one volley if the enemy should break through the woods in front, and then to make a bayonet charge. The Fifty-eighth New York and the Twenty-sixth Wisconsin, on the extreme right, remained as they were, under the immediate command of Colonel Krzyzanowski. Captain Dilger, commanding my battery, drew his pieces back to the high ground, near Wiedrich's battery, and opened upon the columns of the enemy as soon as they showed themselves on the old turnpike.
        To change the front of the regiments deployed in line on the old Turnpike road was extremely difficult. In the first place, they were hemmed in between a variety of obstacles in front and dense pine brush in their rear. Then the officers had hardly had time to give a command when almost the whole of General McLean's brigade, mixed up with a number of Colonel von Gilsa's men, came rushing down the road from General Devens' headquarters in wild confusion, and, worse than that, the battery of the First Division broke in upon my right at a full run. This confused mass of guns, caissons, horses, and men broke lengthwise through the ranks of my regiments deployed in line on the road. While this was going on, several men of the Seventy-fourth Pennsylvania, which formed my extreme right, were shot from behind, the enemy having already penetrated into the woods immediately in the rear of our original position. It was evident that under such circumstances it was an utter impossibility to establish a front at that point. The whole line deployed on the old turnpike, facing south, was rolled up and swept away in a moment. If the regiments had remained as they were at first formed, in column on the open field, it would have been easy to give them a correct front by a simple wheeling, and the turmoil on the road would not have disturbed them. As it was, the Seventy-fourth Pennsylvania and the Sixty-first Ohio Regiments, which I had counted among the best I had, and which had never been guilty of any discreditable conduct, could do nothing but endeavor to rally behind the second line.
This second line, as above described, had changed front, and was formed behind a rise of ground between the church grove and the woods, from which the enemy was expected, but every evolution was attended with the greatest difficulty, as the scattered men of the First Division were continually breaking through our ranks.
In my extreme right, where the Twenty-sixth Wisconsin and the Fifty-eighth New York stood, things wore a similar aspect. A short time after the attack had commenced, a large number of men of the First Brigade, First Division, came running back through the woods, the enemy following closely on their heels. Captain [Frederick] Braun, commanding the Fifty-eighth New York, fell from his horse, mortally wounded, immediately after having deployed his regiment. The enemy was, however, received at that point with great firmness. The Fifty-eighth New York, a very small regiment, exposed to a flanking fire from the left, where the enemy broke through, and severely pressed in front, was pushed back after a struggle of several minutes. The Twenty-sixth Wisconsin, flanked on both sides and exposed to a terrible fire in front, maintained the unequal contest for a considerable time. This young regiment, alone and unsupported, firmly held the ground where I had placed it for about twenty-minutes; nor did it fall back until I ordered it to do so.
        There is hardly an officer in the Twenty-sixth Wisconsin who has not at least received a bullet through his clothes. Had it not been for the praiseworthy firmness of these men he enemy would have obtained possession of the woods opposite without resistance, taken the north and south rifle-pit from the rear, and appeared on the Plank road between Dowdall's Tavern and Chancellorsville before the artillery could have been withdrawn. The order to fall back to the border of the woods behind was given to Colonel Krzyzanowski in consequence of the following circumstances:
        The tide of fugitives had hardly subsided a little on our left, when the enemy's columns, preceded by a thick cloud of skirmishers, presented themselves on and to the right and left of the old turnpike. My regiments had hardly had time to change their position and to wheel into the new front, under what difficulties I have above stated. They had just formed behind the little rise of ground in front of the church grove when the enemy's columns issued from the woods.
        The enemy's front of attack, as we saw it, extended considerably beyond our extreme right. His regiments were formed apparently in column by division, the skirmishers throwing themselves into the intervals whenever their advance was checked. The enemy was formed at least three, perhaps four, lines of columns deep, the intervals between lines being very short, the whole presenting a heavy, solid mass.
        It was observed by Captain Dilger that several regiments marched from Talley's farm by the right flank down to the Plank road and the low ground south of it, so as to envelop our left. The Seventy-fifth Pennsylvania, which was on picket, was thus taken in the rear, and in its dispersed condition found itself, of course, obliged to fall back, its line of skirmishers, which was facing south, being driven in from the flank or captured. The regiment lost a number of men killed and wounded and a good many prisoners, among the latter Lieutenant-Colonel Matzdorff.
        As the enemy emerged from the woods, the regiments of my second line stopped him with a well-directed and rapid fire. Colonel Peissner, of the One hundred and nineteenth New York, a gentleman of the highest order of character and ability, and an officer of great merit, was one of the first to fall, pierced by two bullets.
The enemy was gaining rapidly on the left of the One hundred and nineteenth, which was then exposed to a very severe enfilading fire. The line fell back step by step to the neighborhood of the church grove, facing about and firing as it yielded. Meanwhile the batteries of Captains Dilger and Wiedrich had kept up a rapid fire, first with spherical case, upon the enemy's columns as they descended from Talley's farm, and then with grape and canister. In and on both sides of the church grove the regiments halted, to make another stand.
Colonel Hecker, of the Eighty-second Illinois, fell, wounded, from his horse while holding the colors of his regiment in his hands and giving the order to charge bayonets. Major Rolshausen, of the same regiment, who then assumed command, was wounded immediately afterward.
        The Eighty-second Ohio was directed to draw farther to the right, and to occupy the projecting angle of the woods on the right and rear of the church grove; but, while executing this order, one of your aides directed him to occupy the right of the north and south rifle-pit, where the regiment established itself.
        About that time one of Colonel Krzyzanowski's aides came to me, asking for re-enforcements, as the Twenty-sixth Wisconsin, being nearly enveloped on all sides, could no longer maintain its position. Having no re-enforcements to send, I gave the order to fall back to the border of the woods east of the open ground. The Twenty-sixth Wisconsin then marched in retreat in good order, facing about and firing as often as possible.
Meanwhile the enemy, after having forced back the One hundred and nineteenth New York by his enfilading fire, gained rapidly on the left of Captain Dilger's battery. This battery and that of Captain Wiedrich remained in position until the very last moment. Captain Dilger limbered up only when the enemy's infantry was already between his pieces. His horse was shot under him, as well as the two wheel horses and one lead horse of one of his guns. After an ineffectual effort to drag this piece along with the dead horses still hanging in the harness, he had to abandon it to the enemy. The conduct of this brilliant officer was, on this as on all former occasions, exemplary.
        The enemy was now pouring in great force upon our right and left, and the position in and near the church grove could no longer be held. The two regiments still remaining there gave several discharges, and then fell back in good order. Arriving near the north and south rifle-pit, General Schimmelfennig ordered the Eighty-second Illinois to charge into the projecting corner of the woods on the right, the border of which was already in possession of the enemy. The One hundred and fifty-seventh was directed to fall back along the Plank road, so as to clear the front of the rifle-pit, which seemed to be well filled with men, and to take position on the border of the woods behind. The Twenty-sixth Wisconsin had, in the meantime, been very severely pressed on the extreme right, and there the regiment lost somewhat its compactness, the woods being very thick and the wing companies becoming detached. It was at that moment when I rejoined you behind the rifle pit, which was manned in the center by some of Colonel Buschbeck's regiments; on the left by several companies of the Seventy-fourth Pennsylvania, Sixty-first Ohio, and One hundred and nineteenth New York, and on the extreme right by the Eighty-second Ohio. Several pieces of the Reserve Artillery were still firing.
        Behind the rifle-pit there was a confused mass of men belonging to all divisions, whom we made every possible effort to rally and reorganize, a thing extremely difficult under the fire of the enemy. I succeeded once in gathering a numerous crowd, and, placing myself at its head, led it forward with a hurrah. It followed me some distance, but was again dispersed by the enemy's fire. One of my staff officers was wounded on that occasion. I tried the same experiment two or three times, but always with the same result.
        The enemy advancing on our right and left with rapidity, the artillery ceased firing, and soon the rifle-pit was given up. The Eighty-second Ohio maintained itself very bravely there until the whole of the rifle-pit was abandoned. The loss of that regiment on this spot was very heavy. It was then after 7 p.m.
        The retreat now became general, and the confusion increased as the troops marched through the woods. The One hundred and fifty-seventh New York, still in good order, stopped several times, firing and charging upon the pursuing enemy.
        Captain Dilger had sent his battery toward Chancellorsville, keeping one piece with him, which he brought several times into action with very good success during the retreat of the corps. The Twenty-sixth Wisconsin, Eighty-second Ohio, One hundred and fifty-seventh New York, and the Eighty-second Illinois halted on the right of a line occupied by what was supposed to be General Berry's division. There they remained until about 8.30 p.m., when they retreated farther, to an open space north of Chancellorsville.
After 9 o'clock, the order reached them to march to the rallying place of the Eleventh Corps, west of the Chancellor house. I rallied large fragments of several regiments partly behind the abatis in the woods, partly a little farther back, near the creek west of the Chancellor house. It was about 9 o'clock when I marched with them to the general rendezvous. The corps was reorganized before 11 o'clock.
        Early on the morning of May 3, I was ordered to relieve General Humphreys' division, on the extreme left of the army, near Scott's Mills. Nothing happened in my front except a little skirmishing.
At about 11 p.m. I was relieved by the Twelfth Corps, and then took position behind the First Division, which was deployed in the rifle-pits, our right resting on the Second Corps.
        In the course of the 4th, my division took a more concentrated position, five regiments being deployed in the rifle-pits and five in column, in the second line, on the extreme right of the corps. Nothing but light skirmishing in our front. So my division remained on the 5th.
        Early on the morning of the 6th, we recrossed the Rappahannock at United States Ford, together with the rest of the army. On the evening of the same day, I reached my old encampment, near Stafford Court-House.
        The losses suffered by my division in the action of May 2 were very severe in proportion to my whole effective force. I had 15 officers killed, 23 wounded, and 15 missing, and 102 men killed, 365 wounded, and 441 missing; total, 953.(*) Of those reported as missing, a good many have already been found wounded in the hospitals, and it is probable that a large proportion of them were left killed or wounded on the battlefield. My whole loss amounted to about 23 per cent.
        In closing this report, I beg leave to make one additional remark. The Eleventh Corps, and, by error or malice, especially the Third Division, has been held up to the whole country as a band of cowards. My division has been made responsible for the defeat of the Eleventh Corps, and the Eleventh Corps for the failure of the campaign. Preposterous as this is, yet we have been overwhelmed by the army and the press with abuse and insult beyond measure. We have borne as much as human nature can endure. I am far from saying that on May 2 everybody did his duty to the best of his power. But one thing I will say, because I know it: these men are no cowards. I have seen most of them fight before this, and they fought as bravely as any. I am also far from saying that it would have been quite impossible to do better in the position the corps occupied on May 2; but I have seen with my own eyes troops who now affect to look down upon the Eleventh Corps with sovereign contempt behave much worse under circumstances far less trying.
        Being charged with such an enormous responsibility as the failure of a campaign involves, it would seem to me that very commander in this corps has a right to a fair investigation of his conduct and of the circumstances surrounding him and his command on that occasion. I would, therefore, most respectfully and most urgently ask for permission to publish this report. Every statement contained therein is strictly truthful, to the best of my information. If I have erred in any particular, my errors can easily be corrected. But if what I say is true, I deem it due to myself and those who serve under me that the country should know it.
        I am, general, most respectfully, your obedient servant,

                                                                    C. SCHURZ,

Major-General, Comdg. Third Division, Eleventh Army Corps.

                                                                    Maj. Gen. O. O. HOWARD,
                                                                            Commanding Eleventh Army Corps.

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                                                                    CAMP NEAR STAFFORD COURT-HOUSE,
                                                                    May 18, 1863.
                                                                    Hon. E. M. STANTON, Secretary of War:

SIR:

        I would respectfully ask for permission to publish my report on the part taken by my division in the action of the 2d of May. My reasons for making this request are the following:
        The conduct of the Eleventh Corps, and especially of my division, has been so outrageously and so persistently misrepresented by the press throughout the country, and officers, as well as men, have had and still have to suffer so much abuse and insult at the hands of the rest of the army, that they would seem to have a right to have a true statement of the circumstances of the case laid before the people, so that they may hope to be judged by their true merits.
        It is a very hard thing for soldiers to be universally stigmatized as cowards, and apt to demoralize them more than a defeat. Without claiming for the officers and men of my command anything that is not due them, I would respectfully represent that in my humble opinion it would be but just, and greatly for the benefit of the morale of the men, that the country should be made to understand the disastrous occurrence of the 2d of May in its true character.
        If the publication of my report should seem inexpedient to you, I would respectfully ask for a court of inquiry, to publicly investigate the circumstances surrounding my command on the 2d of May, and the causes of its defeat.
        I am, sir, most respectfully, your obedient servant,

                                                                    C. SCHURZ,
                                                                            Major-General, Comdg. Third Division, Eleventh Army Corps.

[ Indorsements. ]
HEADQUARTERS ELEVENTH ARMY CORPS,
                                                                    May 18, 1863.

Respectfully forwarded.

                                                                    O. O. HOWARD,
                                                                            Major-General, Commanding.

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                                                                    HEADQUARTERS ARMY OF THE POTOMAC,
                                                                    May 18, 1863.

        Respectfully forwarded. I hope soon to be able to transmit all the reports of the recent battles, and meanwhile I cannot approve of the publication of an isolated report.

                                                                    JOSEPH HOOKER,
                                                                            Major-General, Commanding.

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                                                                    HDQRS. THIRD DIVISION, ELEVENTH ARMY CORPS,
                                                                    May 21, 1863.

GENERAL:

        The arrangement spoken of between yourself and the Secretary of War with regard to my transfer to another army is not acceptable, under present circumstances. You remember that about seven weeks ago I expressed a desire to leave with my troops, for the reason that I anticipated difficulties which would be apt to impair the efficiency of the corps. The disaster which befell us on the 2d of May has brought about a state of things which seems to justify my apprehensions in a much larger measure than I had expected; nevertheless it is now impossible for me and my troops to agree to an arrangement which formerly we would have been happy to accept.
        My reasons are these: I have been most outrageously slandered by the press. Ridiculous as it may seem, my division has been made responsible for the defeat of the corps; my officers and men have been called cowards. If we go now, will it not have the appearance as if we were shaken off by the Army of the Potomac? Would it not to a certainty confirm the slanders circulated about me? Would it not seem as if I voluntarily accepted the responsibility for the disaster of May 2? To such an arrangement, under such circumstances, I can never consent.
        I have asked for one of two things: Either the publication of my official report or a court of inquiry, so that the true facts may come to light and the responsibility for the disaster be fairly apportioned. For this and nothing else have I asked, and I shall urge this with all possible energy. Although under all other circumstances I should be willing to go to some other theater of war, under these circumstances I am satisfied with my command as it is and where it is. I consider it a duty to myself and my men to stand right here until the mist that hangs over the events of the 2d of May is cleared up.
        Besides, I had a conversation with General Hooker, in the course of which this subject was incidentally touched, and he pronounced himself decidedly opposed to my going, either without or with my troops.
        I am, general, most respectfully, yours,

                                                                    C. SCHURZ,
                                                                            Major-general.

                                                                    Maj. Gen. O. O. HOWARD,
                                                                            Headquarters Eleventh Corps.

[Indorsement. ]

                                                                    HEADQUARTERS ELEVENTH ARMY CORPS,
                                                                    May 22, 1863.

        General Schurz expressed in a conversation with me on the 19th instant his desire to go with his division to some other army. I wondered at it at the time. I believe that it would militate against him and his command to be transferred at this juncture. I withdraw my request, and will make every effort to reconcile all difficulties arising from the different nationalities in this command.
        Respectfully,

                                                                    O. O. HOWARD,
                                                                            Major-General.

[Inclosure.]

                                                                    HDQRS. ELEVENTH CORPS, ARMY OF THE POTOMAC,
                                                                    Near Brooke's Station, May 21, 1863.

List of German troops in the Eleventh Army Corps.

[Forwarded by Maj. Gen. O. O. Howard, May 21, 1863.]

---Present.--- ---Present and absent.--
Command. Forduty. Total. Commissioned officers. Enlisted men. Total

First Division:                                    

41st New York           371     428     25      584     609
54th New York           243     280     21      382     403
68th New York           259     311     29      410     439
153d Pennsylvania.      639     686     36      815     851
107th Ohio              443     512     24      667     691

Second Division:                                        

27th Pennsylvania.      289     394     27      449     476
73d Pennsylvania.       328     375     26      482     508
29th New York           310     350     32      485     517

Third Division:                                 
74th Pennsylvania.      384     417     31      500     531
75th Pennsylvania.      248     277     27      413     440
45th New York           452     525     31      559     590
119th New York          279     357     31      487     518
82d Illinois            359     423     35      554     589
58th New York           207     253     19      339     358
26th Wisconsin          471     548     31      794     825
        The following regiments are exclusively German: Forty-first New York, Fifty-fourth New York, Sixty-eighth, Twenty-ninth, Forty-fifth, and Fifty-eighth New York, Twenty-seventh Pennsylvania, Seventy-fourth and Seventy-fifth Pennsylvania, Twenty-sixth Wisconsin, and Eighty-second Illinois, numbering 4,206 present.
        The following regiments are mixed nationalities: One hundred and nineteenth New York, One hundred and seventh Ohio, Seventy-third Pennsylvania, and One hundred and fifty-third Pennsylvania, numbering 1,930 present.

-----

                                                                    CAMP NEAR BROOKE'S STATION, VA.,
                                                                    May 30, 1863.

                                                                    Hon. E. M. STANTON,
                                                                    Secretary of War:

SIR:

        To my application for permission to publish my report of the part taken by my division in the battle of Chancellorsville, I received, through the Adjutant-General, the reply that "it is contrary to orders to publish the reports of battles except through the proper official channels." In accordance with this, I would, for the reasons enumerated in my letter of the 18th instant, respectfully request you to publish my report when it reaches the War Department through the proper channel. I would also most respectfully repeat my request that if the publication of my report should seem inexpedient to you, a court of inquiry be granted me for the purpose of publicly investigating the circumstances surrounding my command on the 2d of May, the causes of its defeat, and my conduct on that occasion.
        I am, sir, most respectfully, your obedient servant,

                                                                    C. SCHURZ,
                                                                            Major-General, Comdg. Third Div.,
                                                                                    Eleventh Army Corps.

(War of the Rebellion, between the Union and Confederate Army. Vol 26, #252 pg 647-658)


O.R.--SERIES I--VOLUME XXVII/1 [S# 43] -- Gettysburg Campaign
No. 263. -- Report of Col. William H. Jacobs,
Twenty-sixth Wisconsin Infantry.

                                                                    WARRENTON JUNCTION, VA.,
                                                                    July 28, 1863.

SIR:

        Pursuant to your order, I hereby respectfully submit a report of the part taken by my regiment in the late battle of Gettysburg, as stated to me by officers of the regiment, I myself having been absent on sick leave at the time.
        About 2 p.m. on July 1, the regiment arrived with the rest of your command at the village of Gettysburg, and was ordered at once to the front. The position assigned it by you was the extreme right of the brigade. The regiment was furiously attacked by vastly superior numbers, but held its own until ordered by you to retreat, when a retreat in good order was effected.
        The regiment suffered very severely in this engagement. The loss in officers is as follows: Lieutenant-Colonel Boebel, severely wounded; Major Baetz, wounded; Adjutant Wallber, taken prisoner; 4 line officers killed, 9 line officers wounded, and I line officer taken prisoner. The loss of enlisted men is an aggregate of 200 killed, wounded, and missing.
        At about 4 o'clock the regiment rallied on Cemetery Hill, and was ordered behind the stone fence. During the artillery fire of July 2 and 3, the regiment suffered no loss.
        The behavior of both officers and men was, so far as I can learn, exemplary. I can state nothing special for the praise of individuals.
        Lieutenant-Colonel Boebel commanded the regiment during the engagement on July 1. After its arrival on Cemetery Hill, Captain Fuchs took command until July 4, when I arrived, and resumed command.
        I remain, sir, your obedient servant,

                                                                   W. H. JACOBS,
                                                                            Colonel, Commanding
                                                                                    Twenty-sixth Wisconsin Volunteers.

                                                                   Col. W. KRZYZANOWSKI.
                                                                            Commanding Second Brigade, Third Division.


O.R.--SERIES I--VOLUME XXVII/1 [S# 43] -- Gettysburg Campaign
No. 253. -- Reports of Maj. Gen. Carl Schurz,
U. S. Army, commanding Third Division.

                                                                    HEADQUARTERS THIRD DIVISION, ELEVENTH CORPS,
                                                                    August 20, 1863.

GENERAL:

        On the part taken by my command in the battle of Gettysburg, I have the honor to report as follows:
        On July 1, at 7 a.m., the Third Division left its camp, near Saint Joseph's College, at Emmitsburg, with orders to march to Gettysburg by way of Homer's Mills.
        About 10.30 o'clock, when my division had just passed the latter place, I received, through one of your aides, the order to hurry forward my command as fast as possible, as the First Corps was engaged with the enemy in the neighborhood of Gettysburg. Leaving the command of the division in General Schimmelfennig's hand, I hastened to the front, where I arrived about 11.30 o'clock, finding you upon an eminence east of the cemetery of Gettysburg, from which we overlooked the field of battle. You informed me that General Reynolds had just been killed; that you were in command of the whole, and that you had to turn over the Eleventh Corps to me.
        I saw the First Corps engaged in a lively fight on the ridge northwest of Gettysburg. A dispatch from General Wadsworth informed us that he was advancing; that the forces before him were apparently not very strong, and that he thought, although he had no Clear evidence of it, that the enemy was making a movement toward his right. The right of the First Corps seemed to extend across the Cashtown road and the railroad northeast of it. It was at the time difficult to see how far the ground was in our possession. Of the enemy we saw but little, and had no means of forming a just estimate of his strength. Either the enemy was before us in small force, and then we had to push him with all possible vigor, or he had the principal part of his army there, and then we had to establish ourselves in a position which would enable us to maintain ourselves until the arrival of re-enforcements. Either of these cases being possible, provision was to be made for both. Accordingly you ordered me to take the Third and First Divisions of the Eleventh Corps through the town, and to endeavor to gain possession of the eastern prolongation of the ridge then partly held by the First Corps, while you intended to establish the Second Division and the artillery, excepting the batteries attached to the First and Third Divisions, on Cemetery Hill and the eminence east of it as a reserve.
        The Third Division arrived at -- o'clock, at double-quick; the weather was sultry, and the troops, who had marched several hours without halting a single time, much out of breath. I ordered General Schimmelfennig, to whom I turned over the command of the Third Division, to advance briskly through the town, and to deploy on the right of the First Corps in two lines. This order was executed with promptness and spirit.
        Shortly afterward the First Division, under General Barlow, arrived by the Emmitsburg road proper, advanced through the town, and was ordered by me to form on the right of the Third Division, its First Brigade to connect with the Third Division west of the road leading to Mummasburg, while I ordered the Second Brigade to be held en echelon behind the right of the First Brigade east of the Mummasburg road. Each division had one battery with it. It was about 2 p.m. when the deployment of the two divisions was accomplished. The Second Division arriving shortly after; the First remained with you in the position above indicated.
        The engagement between the First Corps and the enemy had during that time continued briskly, the enemy being apparently driven to the crest of the ridge upon which the college building stands.
Hardly were the two divisions deployed a few hundred yards north of the town, when I received an order from you to remain in the position I then occupied, and to push my skirmishers forward as far as possible. This was done, and our skirmishers, who became soon engaged, especially those of the Third Division, took a considerable number of prisoners.
        While this was going on, two of the enemy's batteries, placed on a hillside opposite the Third Division, one above the other, opened upon us, flanking the First Corps. Captain Dilger, whose battery was attached to the Third Division, replied promptly, dismounting in a short time four of the enemy pieces, and driving away two regiments which were on a line with the enemy's artillery at the foot of the hill.
        In the meantime the firing near my extreme left seemed to increase in volume, and, leaving the point I had selected for myself and staff, on the Mummasburg road, I rode over toward the left, in order to see what was going on. The right of the First Corps seemed to be engaged in a very severe struggle. The enemy was evidently pressing upon that point. At the same time signs were apparent of an advance of the enemy upon my line, especially the right. The enemy was evidently stronger than he had been at the commencement of the battle, and the probability was that re-enforcements were still arriving. Feeling much anxiety about my right, which was liable to be turned if any of the enemy's forces were advancing by the Heidlersburg road, I dispatched one of my aides to you, with the request to have one brigade of the Second Division placed upon the north side of the town, near the railroad depot, as an echelon to the First Division. My intention was to have that brigade in readiness to charge upon any force the enemy might move around my right.
After having taken the necessary observations on my extreme left, I returned to the Mummasburg road, where I discovered that General Barlow had moved forward his whole line, thus losing on his left the connection with the Third Division; moreover, the Second Brigade, of the First Division, had been taken out of its position en echelon behind the right of the First Brigade. I immediately gave orders to re-establish the connection by advancing the right wing of the Third Division, and hurried off aide after aide to look after the brigade of the Second Division which I had requested you to send me for the protection of my right and rear, but it had not yet arrived.
        Suddenly the enemy opened upon the First Division from two batteries placed near the Harrisburg road, completely enfilading General Barlow's line. This fire, replied to by our batteries, produced but little effect upon our men. Soon afterward, however, about 3 o'clock, before the forward movement of the First Division could be arrested by my orders, the enemy appeared in our front with heavy masses of infantry, his line extending far beyond our right. It was now clear that the two small divisions under my command, numbering hardly over 6,000 effective men when going into battle, had a whole corps of the rebel army to contend against.
        The simultaneous appearance of the enemy's battalions on so long a line led me to believe that they had been lying in position for some time behind the woods in our front, fully prepared for us, and that it was their intention, while entangling us in a fight where we were, to throw their left wing around our right, and thus to cut us off from the town. A movement to the rear became at once necessary, but before any orders to that effect could be transmitted, my whole line was engaged, and the Second Brigade, First Division, whose flank had been most exposed in consequence of the advance, fell back in considerable disorder. Unfortunately, General Barlow, who had been directing the movements of his troops with the most praiseworthy coolness and intrepidity, unmindful of the shower of bullets around, was severely wounded, and had to be carried off the battle-field. The command of the First Division devolved upon General Ames.
        It was now of the highest importance to hold the Middletown and Mummasburg roads. Had the Brigade of the Second Division been then at the appointed place, I would have ordered it to charge upon the flanking columns of the enemy, taking them in flank and rear; but that brigade not being there, all I could do was to endeavor to rally the Second Brigade, of the First Division, and to hold the ground west of those roads until the other brigades could be taken back. The enemy, however, pressing on with great vigor, that brigade could be rallied only in part, and the First Brigade, of the First Division, finding its right flank uncovered, was forced back also, not, however, without hotly contesting every inch of ground.
        At that moment it was reported to me that the right wing of the First Corps had been pressed back, and one of Major-General Doubleday's aides brought me a request for a few regiments to be sent over to its assistance, which it was, under the circumstances, impossible for me to do. I received also a report from the Third Division, stating that it was flanked on the left. At the same time your order reached me to withdraw to the south side of the town, and to occupy the position on and near Cemetery Hill previously chosen by you.
While I was doing my utmost, assisted by the officers of my staff, to rally what was within my reach of the First Division, in order to check the enemy's advance upon my right and to hold the entrance of the town, the First Brigade, of the Second Division, under Colonel Coster, at last made its appearance. I led it out of the town, and ordered it to deploy on the right of the junction of the roads near the railroad depot, which the enemy was fast approaching. It was now too late for executing the offensive movement upon the enemy's left flank, which I had originally contemplated, and which might have been made to great advantage ten minutes before, but the brigade, assisted by a battery, succeeded, at all events, in checking the enemy long enough to permit the First Division to enter the town without being seriously molested on its retreat. The Third Division had meanwhile to sustain a furious attack. According to orders, it fell back toward the town in good order, contesting the ground step by step with the greatest firmness.
        In this part of the action, which was almost a hand-to-hand struggle, officers and men showed the highest courage and determination. Our loss was extremely severe. The Second Brigade, Third Division, lost all its regimental commanders; several regiments nearly half their number in killed and wounded. Being flanked right and left, the situation of that division was most trying.
        The retreat through the town, protected by part of our artillery,  was effected as well as could be expected under such circumstances, the streets being filled with vehicles of every description and overrun with men of the First Corps. A considerable number of men, who became entangled in cross streets and alleys, were taken prisoners by the enemy, who entered the town immediately after us. General Schimmelfennig fell in this way into the hands of rebel skirmishers, but succeeded in hiding himself until, on July 4, we retook possession of Gettysburg.
        It was after 5 o'clock when the Eleventh Corps occupied the position on Cemetery Hill; the Second Division behind the stone walls inclosing the cemetery on the west side; the Third Division immediately opposite the town, and the First Division on the right. The group of houses nearest the cemetery were occupied by our skirmishers. The enemy did not undertake to attack that position, and the corps remained in it undisturbed until the enemy resumed the attack on July 2.
        I remain, general, most respectfully, your obedient servant,

                                                                    C. SCHURZ,
                                                                            Major-General.

                                                                    Maj. Gen. O. O. HOWARD,
                                                                            Commanding Eleventh Corps.

-----

                                                                    HEADQUARTERS THIRD DIVISION, ELEVENTH CORPS,
                                                                    August 20, 1863.

GENERAL:

        On the part taken by my division in the actions of July 2 and 3, I have the honor to submit the following report:
        By the losses sustained in the battle of July 1, the Third Division was reduced to an effective force of about 1,500 men. A large number of officers were killed, wounded, or missing, many regiments being under the command of captains. General Schimmelfennig being still in his hiding place within the lines of the enemy, Colonel von Amsberg, of the Forty-fifth New York, commanded my First Brigade.
        The position of the Third Division was behind the stone walls inclosing the cemetery on the northwest side, an orchard separating it from the first houses of the town. I had five regiments deployed in the first line, five in column in the second, connecting on my left with the Second Division, and on my right with the First. My skirmishers were from 300 to 500 yards in front, and a detachment in a group of houses near the cemetery.
        The enemy made no attack in the forenoon of July 2. We observed his artillery moving on the ridges west, north, and east of Gettysburg, and taking position.
        About 4 p.m. the enemy opened upon us from his batteries, the artillery on Cemetery Hill replying with great spirit. The fire continued for about two hours. Although the cannonade was fearful and many projectiles fell into our battalions, not a man belonging to the Third Division, unless wounded, left the ranks. After the cessation of the cannonade, the enemy made a heavy attack upon the left wing of the army, which resulted in a complete repulse.
        Between 6 and 7 p.m. the enemy made a demonstration upon our right wing. As soon as the firing commenced, you ordered me to send one of my brigades to the support of General Ames, commanding the First Division. I took the First Brigade, Colonel von Amsberg commanding, out of its position, filling its place behind the stone wall with the reserve regiments of the Second Brigade. One of the five regiments of the First Brigade (Seventy-fourth Pennsylvania) was left with General Ames to strengthen his right wing. The remaining four were directed toward a strip of woods on the right of the First Division, in which the firing had become very heavy, and where, according to the reports of some staff officers of the First Corps, immediate aid was needed. Two regiments (the One hundred and fifty-seventh New York and the Sixty-first Ohio) were guided by one of these officers, while two others (the Eighty-second Illinois and Forty-fifth New York) were led by the chief of my staff, Lieutenant-Colonel Otto, of the Fifty-eighth New York. It had meanwhile become quite dark, the direction of the fight being indicated by nothing but the sound of the musketry. The regiments entered the woods with the greatest determination, and drove the enemy from our rifle-pits, of which at several points he had already gained possession.
        It is my pleasant duty to mention as especially deserving, the names of Lieutenant-Colonel Otto, who superintended this operation with great judgment and courage, and of Lieutenant-Colonel Salomon, of the Eighty-second Illinois, who displayed the highest order of coolness and determination, under very trying circumstances.
        At 9 o'clock the enemy was repulsed at that point, and no further demonstration made. While this was going on, between 8 and 9 p.m., we suddenly heard a rapid musketry fire on the eminence immediately east of the cemetery, where Captain Wiedrich's battery stood. You ordered me to take two regiments across the road to the aid of that battery. This order was executed by two regiments of the Second Brigade, the One hundred and nineteenth and Fifty-eighth New York, headed by Colonel Krzyzanowski, commanding Second Brigade. I at once hastened with my whole staff toward the threatened point, driving back stragglers with our swords as we went. To my great surprise, we found a general melee in the battery itself, the enemy's infantry having already gotten possession of some of the guns. The cannoneers were defending themselves valiantly. Our infantry made a vigorous rush upon the intruders, and, after a short but very spirited hand-to-hand fight, succeeded in driving them down the hill.
        I cannot refrain from speaking of the conduct of the officers and men on that occasion with the greatest satisfaction.
        The regiments, thus scattered among other commands, were withdrawn during the night, and returned to their former positions.
        In the action of July 3, no part of my command but my skirmishers was engaged. During the memorable cannonade of the afternoon, my men behaved with the same firmness which they had exhibited on the preceding day.
        At daybreak on July 4, the Fifty-eighth New York, under command of Lieutenant-Colonel Otto, entered the town of Gettysburg, the enemy having retreated, and took over 280 prisoners, among whom were several commissioned officers.
        At 8 a.m. Colonel Krzyzanowski, with the One hundred and nineteenth New York and the Twenty-sixth Wisconsin, made a reconnaissance toward the ridge opposite our right; and took 47 additional prisoners. He was called back without having found the enemy. On the 5th, we marched to Emmitsburg.
A report exhibiting the heavy losses my division suffered in the three days' battle has already been submitted to you. It bears ample testimony that my men in that battle fought with bravery, and never yielded without necessity.
        I am, general, most respectfully, yours,

                                                                    C. SCHURZ,
                                                                            Major-General, Commanding Third Division.

                                                                    Major-General HOWARD,
                                                                            Commanding Eleventh Corps.


O.R.-- SERIES I--VOLUME XXXI/1 [S# 54]
OCTOBER 26-29, 1863.--Reopening of the Tennessee River ...
No. 21. --Report of Maj. Gen. Carl Schurz, U.S. Army, commanding Third Division.

                                                                    HDQRS. THIRD DIVISION, ELEVENTH ARMY CORPS,
                                                                    Camp near Brown's Ferry, October 31, 1863.

GENERAL:

        About the part taken by my command in the night engagement of October 29, I have the honor to report as follows:
        We arrived in camp near Brown's Ferry, north of the Kelley's Ferry road, about 4.30 p.m. on October 28. Part of my Third Brigade was left behind on detached service. The camp we occupied was flanked on the left by a row of steep hills; on the right by the Raccoon Mountain; front toward Wauhatchie. The road from Brown's Ferry to Wauhatchie runs along steep ridges, intersected by gaps and ravines, through one of which runs the Kelley's Ferry road, and through another the Chattanooga Railroad, the two being about 500 yards apart. On the right of the road is a valley about one-half mile wide, partly corn-fields and partly timber and brush. This valley is bordered on the right by the Raccoon Mountain. The hills are thickly wooded. My picket line ran along the Kelley's Ferry road, forming an angle where it touches the Raccoon Mountain, so as to cover our right. General Geary's command, which had followed mine on the march, encamped at Wauhatchie, about 3 miles from our camp. About midnight we were disturbed by a few shots on our picket line, which, however, indicated nothing serious.
        About 1 a.m., October 29, lively firing was heard in the direction of Wauhatchie. Soon after, I was ordered to send one of my brigades to occupy the hill in the angle formed by the road to Wauhatchie and the Chattanooga Railroad. I ordered my First Brigade, under General Tyndale, to move at once, and as rapidly as possible, and placed myself at the head of the column. It was bright moonlight. About one-half mile from our camp, while moving through the fields, in order to cut off the angles of the road, according to your direction, the flankers on my left were attacked by a rebel force concealed in the woods on a hill on my left, and my leading regiment received a full volley, which wounded 1 of my staff officers, Captain Lender, and several men. This rebel force was, however, immediately afterward attacked by regiments of the Second Division, and we continued our march toward the hill General Tyndale was to occupy. Finding the ground on the open field boggy and impassable just before reaching the base of hill, the brigade had to march by the left flank to gain the road.
        The hill being in possession of the enemy, orders were given to take it. A short engagement ensued. The enemy was speedily dislodged, the regiments of my First Brigade moving up rapidly. General Tyndale then established himself in the position assigned to him. I reported this to General Hooker, who ordered me to form a junction with General Geary's command. I directed Colonel Krzyzanowski, commanding my Second Brigade, to occupy the gap northeast of the hill held by General Tyndale and Colonel Hecker, commanding my Third Brigade, to march to Wauhatchie with the Sixty-eighth New York, the One hundred and forty-first New York, and six companies of the Eightieth Illinois. He was ordered to open a passage, at whatever cost, if he found the enemy in force on his way. The Seventy-fifth Pennsylvania was directed to occupy the railroad gap. We had no information of the enemy's movements, and could see but little in the darkness of the woods. Colonel Hecker, however, found no serious resistance, and, after a slight skirmish, effected his junction with General Geary's command. He arrived at Wauhatchie before daybreak, and reported himself to General Geary in person about 5 a.m.
        At 6 a.m. I received the order to send another brigade to General Geary. Deeming it necessary to hold the important position occupied by General Tyndale, I ordered Colonel Krzyzanowski to leave a detachment in the position he then had, and to march with the remainder of his command to Wauhatchie. He reported there about 7 a.m.
        My loss was 37 officers and men. We took a number of prisoners.
        I am, general, most respectfully, yours,

                                                                    C. SCHURZ,
                                                                            Major-General, Commanding Third Division.

                                                                    Major-General HOWARD,
                                                                            Commanding Eleventh Corps.


O.R.-- SERIES I--VOLUME XXXI/2 [S# 55]
NOVEMBER 23-27, 1863.--The Chattanooga-Ringgold Campaign.
No. 106.--Report of Maj. Gen. Carl Schurz, U. S. Army, commanding Third Division, including march to the relief of Knoxville.

                                                                    HEADQUARTERS THIRD DIVISION, ELEVENTH CORPS,
                                                                    Lookout Valley, December 22, 1863.

COLONEL:

        I have the honor to present the following report about the part taken by the Third Division in the operations of the Army of the Cumberland from November 22 to December 17:
On November 22, I received the order to leave my camp in Lookout Valley and to march to Chattanooga. My division started at noon and arrived at its camping ground, on the right of General Wood's division in front of Chattanooga, after dark.
        On November 23, about noon, two divisions of the Army of the Cumberland attacked the enemy in front and carried the first line of rifle-pits. At 2 p.m. I received the order to take position in the woods on the left of those divisions, between Orchard Knob and the Tennessee River, connecting on my right with General Wood and on my left with the Second Division of this corps, In taking this position I had a slight skirmish with the enemy's pickets, and was exposed to the fire of a rebel battery placed on the slope of Missionary Ridge, opposite Orchard Knob. I pushed my skirmishers out as far as Citico Creek, and remained in this position during the night.
        November 24, at daybreak, the enemy opened a lively fire upon my skirmishers from a line of rifle-pits on the other side of Citico Creek. I was ordered to strengthen my front with intrenchments, and did so. Occasional skirmishing occurred during the day, but nothing of a serious nature. Colonel Buschbeck's brigade having been detached from the Second Division to open communication with General Sherman's command, which had crossed the Tennessee on our extreme left at daybreak, I was ordered about 3 p.m. to send one brigade to the left to complete that communication. Colonel Krzyzanowski, whose brigade had formed my reserve, was ordered off accordingly. Late in the afternoon I received an order from General Grant to support the forces on my right and left, in case of an attack, to the best of my ability, but if not attacked to do nothing that might bring on a general engagement. The night passed quietly.
        November 25, shortly after sunrise, I was directed by General Howard to drive the enemy's skirmishers out of the rifle-pits in my front, which was executed by Colonel Hecker without serious resistance on the part of the rebels. Colonel Krzyzanowski's brigade rejoined me by order of General Howard. The corps was then ordered to march to the support of General Sherman, crossing Citico Creek near its mouth and following the Tennessee River to General Sherman's pontoon bridge. I took position on General Sherman's left about 2 p.m. My command had no enemy in front, except a few skirmishers, and nothing of importance occurred.
November 26, the corps marched in pursuit of the retreating enemy to Chickamauga Station, and camped within 3 miles of Graysville, arriving in camp one hour after sundown.
        November 27, marched to Parker's Gap, the Second Division leading; my Third Brigade, together with the Second Brigade, Second Division, was ordered to destroy the railroad at Red Clay. The division camped at the crossing of the Red Clay and Cleveland roads.
        The destruction of the railroad was successfully accomplished. My Third Brigade reported back at 1 a.m., November 28. November 28, the division camped near Parker's Gap.
        November 29, marched to Cleveland, Third Division leading; nothing of importance.
        November 30, marched to Charleston, Second Division leading. December 1, marched to Athens.
        December 2, marched to Sweet Water and Philadelphia, driving a little detachment of rebel cavalry before us. Arrived in camp, 2 miles beyond Philadelphia, about one hour after sundown.
        December 3, the Third Division broke camp at 4 a.m. and entered Loudon (which had been abandoned by the enemy during the night) before sunrise, Colonel Krzyzanowski's brigade leading. Considerable stores were found and distributed among the troops.
        December 4, one regiment of Colonel Hecker's brigade crossed the river in a flat-boat, drove away a rebel cavalry detachment, and found four pieces of artillery spiked in a field-work on the opposite bank. The regiment was withdrawn before sundown.
        From December 6 to December 17, marched to Louisville and returned to our old camps in Lookout Valley without any incidents worthy of notice. We arrived in camp on December 17, at 3 p.m.
        I have the honor to affix a list of casualties.
        I am, colonel, very respectfully,

                                                                    C. SCHURZ,
                                                                            Major-General, Comdg. Third Div., Eleventh Army Corps.

                                                                    Lieutenant-Colonel MEYSENSURG,
                                                                            Assistant Adjutant-General.


                                                                    HEADQUARTERS THIRD DIVISION, ELEVENTH CORPS,
                                                                    Lookout Valley, December 22, 1863.

COLONEL:

        I have the honor to present the following report about the part taken by the Third Division in the operations of the Army of the Cumberland from November 22 to December 17:
        On November 22, I received the order to leave my camp in Lookout Valley and to march to Chattanooga. My division started at noon and arrived at its camping ground, on the right of General Wood's division in front of Chattanooga, after dark.
        On November 23, about noon, two divisions of the Army of the Cumberland attacked the enemy in front and carried the first line of rifle-pits. At 2 p.m. I received the order to take position in the woods on the left of those divisions, between Orchard Knob and the Tennessee River, connecting on my right with General Wood and on my left with the Second Division of this corps. In taking this position I had a slight skirmish with the enemy's pickets, and was exposed to the fire of a rebel battery placed on the slope of Missionary Ridge, opposite Orchard Knob. I pushed my skirmishers out as far as Citico Creek, and remained in this position during the night.
        November 24, at daybreak, the enemy opened a lively fire upon my skirmishers from a line of rifle-pits on the other side of Citico Creek. I was ordered to strengthen my front with entrenchments, and did so. Occasional skirmishing occurred during the day, but nothing of a serious nature. Colonel Bushbeck's brigade having been detached from the Second Division to open communication with General Sherman's command, which had crossed the Tennessee on our extreme left at daybreak, I was ordered about 3 p.m. to send one brigade to the left to complete that communication. Colonel Krzyzanowski, whose brigade had formed my reserve, was ordered off accordingly. Late in the afternoon I received an order from General Grant to support the forces on my right and left, in case of an attack, to the best of my ability, but if not attacked to do nothing that might bring on a general engagement. The night passed quietly.
        November 25, shortly after sunrise, I was directed by General Howard to drive the enemy's skirmishers out of the rifle-pits in my front, which was executed by Colonel Hecker without serious resistance on the part of the rebels. Colonel Krzyzanowski's brigade rejoined me by order of General Howard. The corps was then ordered to march to the support of General Sherman, crossing Citico Creek near its mouth and following the Tennessee River to General Sherman's pontoon bridge. I took position on General Sherman's left about 2 p.m. My command had no enemy in front, except a few skirmishers, and nothing of importance occurred.
November 26, the corps marched in pursuit of the retreating enemy to Chickamauga Station, and camped within 3 miles of Graysville, arriving in camp one hour after sundown. November 27, marched to Parker's Gap, the Second Division leading; my Third Brigade, together with the Second Brigade, Second Division, was ordered to destroy the railroad at Red Clay. The division camped at the crossing of the Red Clay and Cleveland roads. The destruction of the railroad was successfully accomplished.
        My Third Brigade reported back at 1 a.m., November 28.
        November 28, the division camped near Parker's Gap.
        November 29, marched to Cleveland, Third Division leading; nothing of importance.
        November 30, marched to Charleston, Second Division leading.
        December 1, marched to Athens.
        December 2, marched to Sweet Water and Philadelphia, driving a little detachment of rebel cavalry before us. Arrived in camp, 2 miles beyond Philadelphia, about one hour after sundown.
        December 3, the Third Division broke camp at 4 a.m. and entered Loudon (which had been abandoned by the enemy during the night) before sunrise, Colonel Krzyzanowski's brigade leading. Considerable stores were found and distributed among the troops.
        December 4, one regiment of Colonel Hecker's brigade crossed the river in a flat-boat, drive away a rebel cavalry detachment, and found four pieces of artillery spiked in a field-work on the opposite bank. The regiment was withdrawn before sundown.
        From December 6 to December 17, marched to Louisville and returned to our old camps in Lookout Valley without any incidents worthy of notice. We arrived in camp on December 17, at 3 p.m.
        I have the honor to affix a list of casualties.
        I am, colonel, very respectfully,

                                                                    C. SCHURZ,
                                                                            Major-General, Comdg. Third Div., Eleventh Army Corps.

                                                                    Lieutenant-Colonel MEYSENBURG,
                                                                            Assistant Adjutant-General


O.R.-- SERIES I--VOLUME XXXVIII/2 [S# 73]
MAY 1-SEPTEMBER 8, 1864.--The Atlanta (Georgia) Campaign.
No. 268.--Report of Col. James Wood, jr., One hundred and thirty-sixth New York Infantry, commanding Third Brigade.

-- Portion --

(Twenty-sixth Wisconsin) almost unserviceable, as well as causing great hindrance to the regiment next to it (Thirty-third Massachusetts). Major Winkler, with commendable skill and ability, with no little difficulty extricated his men from the confused mass into which they had become involved and brought them again reformed into line. This hill being a position of much importance to the enemy, it was not to be supposed that he would yield it without a struggle or without making an effort to retake it after being driven off. Accordingly, regimental commanders were cautioned that they might expect to be in turn attacked, but that they must hold the position at all hazards. The expectation seemed to be well founded, for the enemy made two furious assaults upon my line, but was gallantly and successfully repulsed.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

[This part came from Wisconsin Historical Society, 1200 Series, Box 128, Correspondence 1862-1863]

                                                                    Headquarters 26th Reg. Wis. Vol. Infantry.
                                                                    Near Atlanta, Georgia, Aug. 25 1864
                                                                    General August Gaylord, Adjutant General State of Wisconsin.

Sir.

        In compliance with your letter of July 11th 1864, I have the honor to report the following report of this regiment.
The regiment was mostly recruited in the latter half of August 1862, rendezvoused at Camp Sigel, Milwaukee and was there mustered into the U. S. service the 17th September 1862.
        On the 6th of October, 1862, it left Milwaukee and proceeded on its way to Washington D. C. where it arrived on the 11th of that month. On the next day it marched from that city over the long bridge to Arlington Heights, receiving orders then, assigning it to the 11th Army Corps, Commanded by Major General Franz Sigel. It marched from the Heights on the 15th of October to Fairfax Courthouse, Va. a distance of 15 miles, and there joined the 2nd brigade commanded by Col. W. Krzyzanowski of the 3rd Division Commanded by Maj. General Carl Schurz of the 11th Army Corp.
        The regiment incamped at Fairfax Courthouse, occupied in drilling and picket duty until November 2nd on which day the 3rd Division marched through Centerville to the Bull Run Battlefield and proceeded the next day to Thorough fare Gap. While at this place 2nd Lieut John Orth of Company I was dangerously wounded while on picket duty. On the 7th day of November, camps were again struck and the Division marched through the Gap to New Baltimore. On the 9th of the same month they marched to Gainsville, Va., there incamped.
Nov. 18th, returned to Centerville. At Centerville we remained until the 9th of December 1862 when the 11th Corps was ordered to support of Maj General Burnside, who was then preparing his great attack on Fredricksburg. They marched to Falmouth on the Rappahonnock by way of Dumfries and Stafford Courthouse, arriving then on the 14th of December, a day after the bloody battle of Fredericksburg. This march was one of the hardest the Regt. ever made. Rain and melting snow had made the roads almost impassable, arriving at our Camping grounds generally late in the evening, the tents had to be pitched in the snow and mud; rations, too, were very much reduced, a part of the time.
         From Falmouth the Corps returned to Stafford Courthouse 9 miles in its rear on the 17th day of Dec. 1862. Here winter quarters were built (right, unknown regiment), but only enjoyed for a short time. On the 21st of Dec. the regiment was sent towards Dumfries where an attack had been made by the enemy. After marching, about 4 miles the regiment was however recalled.
        On the 19th day of January, 1863, the Corps marched to the neighborhood of Beriah Church, Va. The regiment, being detailed as rear guard, however remained in the neighborhood of Stafford C. H. for a few days and then followed the Corps to Beriah Church. On the 4th day of February, and put as we had completed another set of winter quarters, orders to march were again received and returned to the neighborhood of Stafford Court House. There we built winter quarters again and finally settled down in them. The winter was passed in drilling, and in a course of general instructions, besides the usual round of picket and fatigue duty. By this time the strength of the regiment had been conciderably reduced by sickness, deaths, and discharged so that the aggregate effective force of the regiment at the time of entering on the Chancellorsville Campaign was about (left blank).
        On the 27th day of April this great campaign opened. The 11th Corps, then under the Command of Major General Howard, and with it the 26th, broke camp on that day and marched on that and the following day to Kelley's Ferry on the Rappahanick. At midnight of the 28th day of April, the pontoons were completed and we crossed the Rappahonick and marched that same night 3 miles beyond the river. The next morning we pursued our course and at about 5 o'clock P. M. reached the Rapid Ann at Germania Mills. Again in the dark of night we crossed the river and next day continued our march till we reached Locust Grove near Chancellorsville. This was on the 30th day of April 1863. The 11th Corps here formed the extreme right of the Army of the Potomac.
        On the 1st of May the Regiment was made and put in the second line, the line facing south or nearly so. An attack by the enemy was hourly expected but not made. On the 2nd at about 10 o'clock A. M. the brigade to which the regiment attached was withdrawn from its position and put in line so as to protect the flank of the Army. We then faced about west and were in position at right angles with the main army, but some what retired from its extreme right. The 26th was in fine line, deployed in line of battle in an open pieces of ground, in its front at a distance of about 75 yards was a strip of heavy timber. In this and about 300 yards distant from the regiment it deployed a heavy line of skirmishers and sent Companies A., B. to their support.
Thus matters stood until 5 o'clock P. M. Not a shot was fired by our skirmishers nor neighborhood. No breastwork or protection of any kind had been put up. The regiments had stacked their arms and the men were cooking their coffee. Bands played national airs and nothing indicated that an enemy was near or forboded the terrible storm that was approaching till at once a shot was fired on the skirmish line, then another and then the rattling volleys told us that the enemy was upon us.
         We were struck directly in front, the line of the main army was thus attacked on the right flanks in rear of the right flank. the extreme right gave way immediately, the men rushing by us and through our line in their hasty flight. Scarcely had the regiment fallen in and taken its arms when the rebels appeared in the edge of the woods. Our skirmish line had mean while been completely crushed. Captain Pizzala Commanding it was killed by the first volley. Companies A and B finding it useless to stay, hastened back with the few of our skirmishers that remained and rejoined the regiment. On the left of the 26th stood the 119th N.Y. Vols. and on it's left the line of the main army was giving way - on our right was nothing. (left, Howard attempting to persuade the men to return to battle.)
        The two regiments thus almost isolated stubbornly held their ground; volley after volley they poured into the ranks of the enemy, checking what was in their front but being themselves fearfully reduced in numbers.
The left of the enemy by far overlapping our right past foward unresisted and we were in danger of being cut off. Thus had we desperately fought the enemy for about 1/4 hour when we received the order from our brigade commander to fall back. We fell back but left upon the bloody field nearly 200 of our best men. About one mile in our rear of the original position the regiment, or what remained of it, formed again. It had meanwhile grown dark and the advance of the enemy had been stopped.
        Early in the morning of the 3rd, we marched back with the balance of the core to the left of the army near U.S. Ford and went into position there. A part of the regiment was again thrown out as skirmishers and was actually engaged during the day and a part of the night without suffering any loss.
On the morning of the 4th our division moved further to the right and again took up a position. Thus we remained until 3 o'clock on the morning of the 6th of May when the order was given to recross the Rappahanock. We crossed the river on pontoon bridges and marched back on the same day to our old camp near Stafford Courthouse.
        The following are the casualties of the officers of the regiment in the Battle. Capt. Chas. Pizzala, killed, August Schucle, do.; Capt. Charles W. Neukirch, wounded, 1st Lt. Chas Doerflinger, do.; 2nd Lt. Aug Greno, do.; 2nd Lt. Adolph Cordies, do.; 1st Lt. Robert Leuelle do.; 2nd Lt. Henry Rosther Rauth, taken prisoner. Thirty five enlisted men were killed, one hundred and twelve wounded, nineteen taken prisoners and three missing.
        On the 16th day of May we moved our camp to a place near Brooks Station, Va. about 1 mile from the old position. Here we remained until the 12th day of June on which day we broke camp and started off on the Gettysburg Campaign under the Command of Lt. Col. Boebel, Col. Jacobs being absent sick. Our effective strength now was (no number given) men. Our first march was to Hartford Church, Va. when we camped for the night. On the 13th we marched to Caltlets Station. On the 14th we went to Centerville, Va. In the neighborhood of this place we remained on the 15th and 16th. On the morning of the 17th we left Centerville and marched to Goose Creek, Va. the day was intensely hot and the road very dusty. On Goose Creek we camped and remained to the 24th. On that day we marched to the banks of the Potomac near the mouth of Goosecreek.
        At 4:30 P. M. of the 25th of June we crossed the Potomac at Edwards Ferry and marched to Jeffersonville, Md. On the 26th, marched to Middleton, Md. and remained there on the 27th. On the 28th, marched to Frederick, Md. Left there the next day and marched to Emmitsburg, Md. where we remained until the morning of the 1st of July. At 7 in the morning of that day we received orders to march. We crossed the Maryland boundary, it was about 11 o'clock when we arrived in the vicinity of Gettysburg.
        The thunder of cannons proclaimed that the battle was already progressing. The first Corps was engaged entering the town from the south side we marched through it, a north westerly direction and formed a line. A little beyond it in an open wheat field. The 26th was put in the 2nd line of our brigade and masted in double column; after a delay of about 1/2 hour, the order was given to advance. The second line advanced but a short distance and halted. While the first line marched to a strip of timber in their front about 200 yds distant.
They had hardly reached it when they were attacked by overwhelming numbers and at once gave way in the utmost confusion. The second line was then pushed forward. Marching forward. The 26th when it had arrived at about 100 yards from the enemy who was then eagerly pressing forward, deployed into line of battle and opened a murderous fire. On our left was again the 119th N. Y. Vols. and our right we had no connection or support whatever.
        The enemy were checked, but for a short time. Through the heavy clouds of smoke the enemy could be seen advancing in heavy lines on our left flank raking our thin line with an infilading fire. The 119th N. Y. was doubled up and throw on our left Companies. Closer and closer the enemy pressed on our left wing until they were within 15 to 20 paces of it. Then the order was given by the Brig. Commander to retreat. The open field over which we now had to retrace our step was swift by the hostile bullets, and many a brave man was laid low, while attempting to cross.
        Of the officers engaged in this conflict only four - Capt. Carl Frenekes, Leuits.. Schmidt and Raush escaped unhurt. It is not strange therefore that the regiment became considerably scattered in the retreat. At the outskirts of the town, a hall was made and the advance of the enemy again engaged and we then fell back in rear of the retreating column through the main thorough fare of the town to Cemetery Hill (right, Arch at Cemetery Hill) where the regiment was at once reformed and put in line behind a low stone fence resting its right on the street.
        Capt. Fuchs whose wound was light had been dressed at once, rejoined and took command. Soon after Lieut. Fraumer came up from Emmetsburg with a detail which had been on picket some miles from the place the previous night and not relieved in time to join the regiment before marching in the morning. This detachment was again put on picket the evening right immediately in front of the regiment and was engaged in a hot skirmish, all the time in which two men were killed and two wounded.
        During the 2nd and 3rd days battles the regiment did not change position nor sustain any further losses. The total losses in this battle were as follows: Officers killed: Capt. William Smith, 2nd Lieut. Martin Goung, 2nd Lieut. Charles Bruckert, 2nd Lieut. Pale Rook. Officers wounded: Lt. Col Uaus Boebel, Major Henry Baetz, Capt. Lackner, Capt. Fuchs, Capt. Fuertenberg, 1st Lieut. Otto Fraemel, 1st Lieut. August Bartoch, 2nd Lieut Conrad Grode, 2nd Lieut Wm. Shenimege, 2nd Lieut. Leopold Melchior, 2nd Lieut. Sigmound Juenger, 2nd Lieut Joseph Mischauer. Officers taken prisioner: Capt. Bernhard Domschke and 1st Lieut. Albert Wallber. Enlisted men killed, thirty seven, wounded, one hundred and twenty five and taken prisoner thirty seven, missing six.
        Early in the morning of the 4th the regiment was sent with one other regiment of the Brig. on a reconnocence to the east of Cemetery Hill and soon found that the enemy was gone and returned to its former position, bringing in number of prisoners. In the afternoon, Col. Jacobs arrived and resumed command. About 7 P. M. the next day, the march southward was commenced and continued some mile through mud and darkness and the next morning as far as Emmitsburg.
        On the 7th, the regiment marched all the way to Middletown, some thirty-three miles, crossing the Ketochan Mountain over a very rough and difficult road. About 3 P. M. the next day it started for Boonsboro where Kilpatrick was engaged with Stuart and said to be rather hard pressed. Our Division was sent to his support and after passing over South Mountain marched thought the town ready for action, but found that the Rebel Cavalry had already been driven from the field.
        On the 10th, marched to near Funkstown, on the 12th, crossed Antietam Creek and took position and entrenched between Funkstown and Hagers town where our army was massed, directly by, opposite the Rebel Army. Remained here the 13th. The 14th, marched over the enemy's abandoned works to Willams Port to find the enemy there. Started again at 4 A. M. the 15th and marched back to Middletown and continued our march the 16th of within a couple of miles of Berlin. On the 19th, recrossed the Potomac and then by slow marches went through the Luden Valley to Warrenton Junction where we arrived the 25th, with may be considerd the end of the grand episode in Virginia War, the Gettysburg Campaign. The severity of this campaign with its many forced marches during the very hottest season of the year will not be easily forgotten. The regiment was much reduced by the heavy casualties of battle and sickness and there being but few officers present, it was for tactical purposes temporarily organized into five companies.
        In the vicinity we remained till the middle of September doing heavy picket and patrolling duty, all the time and changing camp very frequently thus making many short marches. Our ranks gradually increased by the return of convalescent. A number of officers who had been wounded returned and we organized our regular ten companies again. The 17th Sept. our brigade was sent to Rappahanock Station where the R. R. crossed the river. Our regiment was sent to occupy the South Bank while the rest of the Brig. remained on the North side of the river.
        Diligent picketing and patrolling continued to be done. On the 24 of Sept., a somewhat novel order came - "to get ready to be shifted by rail at once". We did. It was supposed the returning train from Culpepper, due about dark would take us. The train came, but had orders, "could not take us" and soon notice was given that we must march. It was perhaps 10 o'clock at night when we started, marched all night, stopped for a short rest and a scanty breakfast at Casletts Station and then pursued our journey towards Mannasses where we arrived about 4 o'clock P. M. Shortly after dark we embarked on a train of baggage cars which we did not leave again until we had been brought by the B. & O. R. R. to the banks of the Ohio River, opposite Belain. Having crossed the river on a pontoon bridge we embarked again on a similar train somewhat more closely packed, however, and were taken at a very modest rate of speed to Indianapolis where another change of cars brought us into a little closer quarters still from which we were released at Jeffersonville. The ferry took us across the river to Louisville and we marched to the Soldiers Home.
        We started again the same day and arrived at Nashville at sunrise the next morning. After some hours delay, partly packed into and partly stowed on top the box cars, we moved southward again and at dawn on the 2nd of October, arrived at Bridgeport, Alabama. Here we went into camp. About 11 o'clock P. M. the 9th of Oct., our brigade was suddenly ordered out and put aboard of tow trains to be taken to the tunnel near Corvan Station, about 30 miles North of Bridgeport where the Rebel raider were said to have made an attack.
We were all aboard and ready to start at midnight, but it was a long time before the effort of the locomotives, which were certainly strenuous to judge by the puffing, could effect a forward movement and then it was not rapid. The boys whispered that the conductor was free from fear, but that could not be as he managed to bring us to the relief of the endangered tunnel by eight o'clock the next day.
        It was found that a party of raiders had driven off the guard the evening before and thrown a large quantity of rocks and logs from the top of the mountain into the stafts so as to obstruct the track below. We set a party at work who in about an hour removed the obstructions, also sent patrols to ecour the neighborhood, but found no enemy. Towards evening, a train took us back to Bridgeport. A few days after this we started on another expedition with the 143rd N. Y. Vol. Regt. went to Shellmound a R. R. Station some seven miles from Bridgeport on the south side of the Tennessee and went to work of reconstruct a R. R. bridge across a creek which had been destroyed by the Rebels while the 143 N. Y. went along a side track to certain coal mines after a locomotive which had been discovered there. We remained there with large details constantly at work under an incessant rain till the evening of the second day when we were relieved by another regiment.
        At another time while at Bridgeport, a reconnaissance of three companies under Capt. Fuchs was sent to the south side of the Tennessee and returned with the capture of two Rebel scouts. On the morning of the 27th October we entered upon another campaign. The whole of the 11th Corps followed by a division of the 12th Corps, crossed the Tennessee, at Bridgeport and then marched along the R. R. towards Chattanooga. We halted for the night some four miles east of Shellmound and continued our march next day to the neighborhood of Brown's Ferry meeting us opposition except from a small body of Rebel skirmishers and the annoyance of a battery playing upon us form the top of Lookout Mountain.
        Approaching midnight we were suddenly aroused by a lively fire which soon became quite rapid. The rebels had come in between us and General Geary's column which had stopped at Wauchatchie (near Lookout mountain, left). A portion of the corps was ordered to dispossess the Rebel of several important hills they had taken possession of and we were moved forward in their support. The position was carried and we held a portion of it till day light when we were sent to the support of General Geary where another attack seemed to be anticipated. The casualties we enstaimed in this action were two men wounded.
        The next few weeks we were moved about a good deal from on position to another, each of which had to be strongly entrenched, which added to large picket details made the duty of the men very heavy and the weather was very raw and mostly the time rainy and half rations or sometimes three quarters was all that was issued, they felt it very severely. On the 8th of November, Col. Jacobs left, being detailed on recruiting service and the command of the Regiment devoted upon me (then Captain).
        On the 10th we went on a foraging expedition towards Trenton; started at 7 o'clock A. M., marched all day and the succeeding night till 3 o'clock when we got back. We then went into a new camp where we at once put up good and substainable log huts. On Friday the 20th of November, orders come to be ready to march at a moments notice with three days rations and without knapsacks and the next Sunday afternoon (22nd of November) the regiment marched to Chattanooga about 270 strong, leaving the camp and baggage in charge of convalescents.
        At Chattanooga we bivouacked for the night. About 10 o'clock P. M. we formed in battle array and moved down towards Mission Ridge, our brigade in double column in support of the first line. The rebel skirmishers were driven back from one position to another so that by night fall considerable ground had been gained. The regiment was now ordered to the front line and temporally attached to Colonel Hecker's brigade. Some skirmishing and a further advance of the line took place the next day.
        Early the 25th we rejoined our own brigade and marched round Mission Ridge to the extreme left of the army near Chickamunga Creek where we took a strong position to guard against a flank movement on part of the enemy. Here we remained till 4 A. M. the 26th when we started in pursuit of the now routed enemy. We had to go back some 4 miles to the mouth of the Chickamunga where we crossed on a pontoon bridge and then continued our march. The next day we passed through Darkers Gap in White Oak Mountains and marched some distance beyond. The 28th marched back to the Gap end and drenching rain and there encamped and received three days rations which were to be good for six. Sunday the 29th, we were started as 6 A. M. and marched to Cleveland E. Tennessee, the next day, to Charleston on the Hiwassee, where details were put at work at once to repair the R. R. bridge for the passage of troops. Early next day, Dec 1st, we crossed, received our share of some Rebel flour and salt, captured there and then marched on passing through Riceville about noon and then, at night near which we bivouacked till 5 A. M.
        December 2nd when we were again on the march. A very hard days march brought us through Mouth Creek, Sweetwater, and Philadelphia and it was long after dark when we were halted several miles, north of the latter place. At 4 A. M. Dec. 3rd, we marched again and at day light, entered Louden in line of battle and skirmishers in advance, but found no enemy there. Here we remained till 1 A. M. Dec 5th when we started for Davis Ferry on the little Tennessee River some seven miles form Laudon, where we crossed that river on a wagon bridge. We marched till night, then encamped near Little River about fifteen miles from Knoxville, where we were to go the next day. But early in the morning our orders were countermanded and we were allowed a day of rest.
        The 7th, we turned back and now retraced our steps by gradual stages to our old camp in Lookout Valley were we arrived the 17th of Dec. We had sustained us casualties at the hands of the enemy, but the hardships of the campaign had been extraordinary. The men were mostly without blankets, shoes were badly worn out and on the way back quite a number were absolutely barefooted, subsistence had the gathered from the country and was often very scantily supplied. The weather was inclement, some of the nights exceedingly cold and the rather frequent rain chilling. Many who participated in the campaign had to linger in hospitals for many weeks after and several died of the effects.
        From now till spring, the regiment enjoyed a season of recreation and rest, although large details for picket and fatigue duty upon roads were constantly out. Till the 25th of January, 64, it remained in Lookout Valley, then was transferred to Whiteside. Here remained till April 23 when having been transferred to 3 Brig., 3 Div., 20th Corps. It marched to Lookout Valley, again where this brigade was encamped. Regimental Command were now confidentially advised that they must be ready for active service by the 1st of May. The 26th. had gained considerable accesions. Eighty recruits had joined it, many convalescents had returned to duty.

[The continuation of this report follows...]
 


O.R.-- SERIES I--VOLUME XXXVIII/2 [S# 73]
MAY 1-SEPTEMBER 8, 1864.--The Atlanta (Georgia) Campaign.
No. 276.--Report of Lieut. Col. Frederick C. Winkler, Twenty-sixth Wisconsin Infantry.

                                                                HDQRS. TWENTY-SIXTH REGT. WISCONSIN VOL. INFANTRY,
                                                                Atlanta, Ga., September 25, 1864.

SIR:

        I have the honor herewith to submit the following report of operations of my regiment during the last campaign:
        On the morning of May 2 we set out with 417 muskets and marched that day to Gordon's Mills. May 4, marched to Pleasant Grove, some four miles south of Ringold. May 6, marched to Leet's farm. May 7, crossed Taylor's Ridge, over a very rugged road, passed through Gordon's Springs, and camped at night in Dogwood Valley, about three miles from Buzzard Roost. May 8, started about noon on a reconnaissance to Buzzard Roost where we first met the enemy. A skirmish ensued and was continued till night and resumed the next morning. Here Lieutenant Juenger and First Sergeant Stollberg were wounded. May 9, returned to Dogwood Valley and went into camp.
        On May 11, we started again at daylight and marched into Snake Creek Gap. Halted shortly after noon and were all put to work improving the road through the gap. May 12, marched forward several miles and halted. May 13, marched several miles and formed in order of battle near Resaca; skirmishing commenced about noon; we were left in reserve through the afternoon; took a position in the front line at night. May 14, remained in same position, with skirmishers out in front. The fire between the skirmishers became at times quite active, and we lost that day 1 man killed and 3 wounded. About midnight we were relieved and taken to the rear, where we slept till daylight. Shortly after marched to the extreme left of our army where dispositions for battle were soon made. The Twenty-sixth was formed on the right of the brigade in the front line and I ordered to take a hill in its immediate front.

        Skirmishers were thrown out, and, supported by the main body of the regiment, soon succeeded to drive the rebel skirmishers out of a light breast-work they had thrown up on top of a hill, and we gained its brow. The rest of the brigade soon joined us on the left. Here we halted some time. The rebels' main line of fortifications was on a ridge nearly parallel to the one we occupied, and separated from it by a valley very densely covered by a young growth of pines. We moved forward again, drove the rebel skirmishers back into their works, and pressed on to an assault. The fire of canister and musketry that met us was terrific, the rebels' works proved very difficult of access, and the density of the forest made the preservation of a serried line impossible, so that although the works were actually gained in some places, the assault as a whole proved unsuccessful. We drew back into the valley, reformed the line, and attempted another assault, but again in vain. Orders were then given to fall back to the first hill, and there the regiment was collected. The rebels made a desperate charge to regain this position but were completely repulsed. The regiment lost in this day's action Lieut. Christian Phillip and 5 men killed and 40 wounded. After dark we were relieved by other troops and allowed to rest a short distance to the rear. May 16, the rebels having evacuated Resaca during the night, we started in pursuit about 10 a.m., marched southwesterly, crossed the Connesauga on a log bridge, and arrived after dark at Field's Mill, on the Coosawattee River, which we crossed in a ferry boat and then halted. About 1 p.m. 17th set out in a southwesterly course and rested that night about two miles west of Calhoun; 18th, started at 5 a.m., and marched south. About the middle of the afternoon our advance encountered rebel skirmishers supported by a section of artillery. One regiment of the brigade was deployed as skirmishers and the Twenty-sixth marched in line of battle in their support.
        We advanced slowly, and at night halted and slept on our arms. The next morning we pressed forward again, our brigade going due south on a reconnaissance; toward noon came in sight of a large body of rebels. Our brigade being alone we withdrew to a slight eminence and there awaited the enemy, but he made no attack. After several hours had elapsed we moved forward again toward Cassville, the Twenty-sixth in advance, Companies A and G deployed as skirmishers. We had gone about half a mile when our skirmishers became engaged and quite a brisk skirmish ensued, in which the rebels were driven back and retired into the hills around Cassville. Toward evening, our corps having concentrated, we moved against Cassville in order of battle. Here quite a fight between the skirmishers and artillery of the hostile forces took place, continuing till long after dark.
        Our regiment was in second line and suffered no loss. The action over, we were taken about a mile to the rear and there encamped till May 23, when we set out again at 4 a.m. and marched southwesterly, crossed the Etowah River on a pontoon bridge in the afternoon, and soon after halted. 24th, marched to Burnt Hickory. Shortly after 8 a.m. May 25 we started from Burnt Hickory and marched southward, crossed Pumpkin Vine Creek, and continued our march through a very rough country, hills and woods. Near New Hope Church we came upon our Second Division, who had intrenched themselves. Dispositions for battle were made, and about 4 p.m. our brigade moved forward on the extreme left of the line, the Twenty-sixth being in second line. We moved forward with but little opposition nearly a mile, then came to a ravine which was commanded by an opposite hill, which the rebels held in force with infantry and artillery. The brigade was still pressed forward, and here a very severe conflict ensued. The rebels fire was very rapid and, owing to their advantageous position, far more effective than ours.
        The Seventy-third Ohio, in the front line to our left, being very hotly pressed, we moved to its support and soon after relieved it and took our place in the front line. The battle continued with great fierceness for about an hour longer, when, as darkness set in, both parties ceased firing. We held that position till after midnight, when we were taken to the rear. Our casualties this day were 5 men killed, 1 officer and 31 men wounded, and 2 men missing. It being found that the enemy occupied a strongly intrenched position, our army also took position and intrenched. We were held in reserve till the 27th of May, when we took position in the front line of works, where we remained till evening of the 30th, our pickets in front constantly skirmishing with those of the enemy, whereby 1 man was killed. The evening of the 30th we were relieved and retired to the second line.
        June 1, our corps was relieved by the Fifteenth, and we marched toward the left. June 2, continued our march, and toward evening took position in support of troops of the Twenty-third Corps, who were skirmishing in our front. June 3, pushed forward again several miles. June 6, marched southward again and about noon struck the rebel lines. Here we again intrenched a strong line near that of the enemy, and the long rains which ensued kept us there till June 15, when we pressed forward again, the rebels having evacuated their lines running over Pine Knob toward Lost Mountain. We pressed forward cautiously, the advance engaged in heavy skirmishing. The enemy had only retreated about two miles to a very strong position well intrenched near Golgotha Church. We pushed close up to his works under a heavy skirmish and artillery fire. Our brigade was in reserve and exposed only to the latter. Two men of the regiment were wounded by a shell. The ground gained was held and the front line intrenched during the night.
        June 16, took position in front line. The rebels evacuated that night. Our skirmishers pressed forward at daylight, driving the enemy's, and then our battalion soon followed. The rebel skirmishers opposite those of the Twenty-sixth once attempted to make a stand, but they pressed forward impetuously, drove them off, and captured a battle-flag from them. At Noyes' Creek the enemy was again found in force and intrenched, and we in turn halted and intrenched. On the morning of the 19th this position was found to be evacuated, and we advanced once more with difficulty, crossed several creeks very much swollen in consequence of the late heavy rains, and came upon the enemy's skirmishers again. In the afternoon our brigade was formed in one line, the Twenty-sixth on the right, and sent forward into a wood. Having gone some distance we came to an open field commanded by a wooded hill held by rebel skirmishers. Here we were ordered to halt while our skirmishers engaged those of the enemy. Thus the afternoon passed. We lost I man killed and 4 wounded. After dark we were withdrawn to the rear of entrenchments, which had mean time been thrown up by the other brigades. This was in front of the rebel position near Kenesaw Mountain.
        June 22, our brigade was again formed in line of battle and marched forward. The rebels had thrown up a line of rifle-pits along the hill they held the 19th, and occupied them by a very strong skirmish line, which our skirmishers were unable to dislodge. We were then ordered to advance upon them in line. We had to cross an open field under a destructive fire, then charged upon the pits and took them, but soon found that they were commanded by the main line of the enemy's works. The portion held by our regiment was particularly exposed, but it had to be held, and we managed to throw up some breast-works, which, when finished, afforded us some protection. Our loss was very heavy, 9 men killed and 30 wounded. At night we were relieved and marched some distance to the right.
        June 23, marched to the right as far as the Powder Springs road, in rear of the line, then marched along that road as close as we could up to the rebel position, there took position and intrenched. Here we remained, with constant skirmishing between the pickets, till July 3; had 2 men wounded. We were so close to the rebel skirmishers that they fired into our lines with ease, and there was no place of safety except close to the breast-works.
        July 3, the enemy being on the retreat again, we followed; found the enemy again strongly intrenched, and halted. July 4, made a short reconnaissance to find the position of Twenty-third Army Corps in the forenoon; moved some distance to the right in the afternoon to connect with that corps. July 5, the enemy having abandoned his works on the Nickajack Creek, we advanced again to within a few miles of the Chattahoochee. July 6, marched toward the left a couple of miles, and went into camp in a pleasant wood about two miles from the river and within eyesight of the domes of Atlanta. Here we enjoyed a brief period of rest. At 1 p.m.
        July 17 we broke camp, and toward evening crossed the river a little above the railroad crossing. July 18, marched to Buck Head and remained there 19th. July 20, we marched south from Buck Head, and shortly before noon crossed Peach Tree Creek; then formed in line and halted for a rest at the foot of a hill which ran along our front nearly parallel to our line. The Twenty-second Wisconsin, deployed as skirmishers in front of our division, had driven the rebel skirmishers from this hill, and also another similar hill beyond it, and now held the latter. We had been in this position several hours, when it was reported that the enemy was advancing in lines of battle, and the increased rapidity of fire on the skirmish line corroborated the report. Our brigade was at this time formed in two lines, the Twenty-sixth Wisconsin Regiment in front line on the right, the Twentieth Connecticut on the left, two regiments, Seventy-third and Fifty-fifth Ohio, in second line. We took arms at once and waited impatiently for the order to advance.
        The order came, and we moved forward simultaneously with the brigade on our right. We gained the first hill just as our skirmishers were falling back from the second. We moved forward still, and had just gained a shallow ravine covered with bushes between the two hills when the enemy appeared in strong line of battle at a fence running along the brow of the hill in our front. As the two lines were within easy musket-range of each other, the battle commenced at once with great fierceness. The Twentieth Connecticut had not advanced with us.
        The Fourth Corps, still pushed to the left, which did occupy an advanced position at the time of the approach of the enemy, had fallen back to its breast-works, so that we were now on the extreme left of the line. In our front the field was open, but some sixty yards from our left there was a dense forest. Of this the enemy availed themselves, and came upon our flank in strong force, opening an enfilading fire upon us, while at the same time the line in front came nearer and nearer, until the two lines were in many places less than a rod apart. For a time the conflict was desperate. I took every man who could be spared on the right to re-enforce the left. At last the enemy broke and fled. We pursued him on his very heels to the top of the hill, captured the regimental flag of the Thirty-third Mississippi, and leaving Colonel Drake, of that regiment, and 34 others dead, and at least double that number severely wounded, behind us, and cutting off the retreat of forty others, who surrendered afterward to the second line.
        Arriving on the top of the hill, we were again met by a heavy volley from the woods on our left, to which we replied with vigor. After some fifteen minutes the Twentieth Connecticut came up and took position on our left, and some time after the Seventy-third Ohio came up to take our place, and we were permitted to go some forty yards to the rear. Our ammunition had been entirely expended, and during the last half hour we had used that of the killed and wounded rebels lying on the field. The intense heat of the sun, added to the heat of the contest, had utterly exhausted the men, and when the excitement was over quite a number fell into a swoon. We secured besides the flag 5 officers' swords of the Thirty-third Mississippi. This regiment, we ascertained from the wounded, numbered nearly 400 effective men. We went into action with 260 muskets. Our casualties were Captains Seeman and Mueller killed, Captain Steinmeyer and Lieutenant Wollmer wounded, 7 enlisted men killed and 34 wounded. July 21, we remained on the battle-field, which was about half a mile from a strong line of fortifications held in force by the enemy.
        The enemy's sharpshooters continued to shoot into our line, and killed I man of Company K. July 22, it was found that the enemy had abandoned his first line of works, and we moved forward and took position near the main defense of Atlanta. July 23, moved about half a mile to the right to relieve a brigade of our First Division near the railroad, and remained till 29th, being daily much exposed to rebel artillery fire, by which 2 men were wounded the 27th.
        July 29, our division left this position and marched to the extreme right of the army. August 2, moved back again nearly to our former position, and next day relieved Fourteenth Corps in the front line. In this position we remained to the 25th day of August. We advanced our lines three successive times, strongly intrenching at each advance, and were constantly exposed to bullets from the rebel picket-line, whereby we lost 2 men killed and 2 wounded. In the night of 25th of July we withdrew from our breast-works and marched to Turner's Ferry; there took position and intrenched.
        On the morning of September 2 we detailed two officers and seventy men as part of a reconnoitering party, which that day entered the city of Atlanta. In the afternoon sent another similar detail, who proceeded to Atlanta. September 4, took the balance of the regiment to Atlanta, where we now encamp.
        Of the battles of Resaca and Peach Tree Creek I have heretofore made my separate official reports, to which I beg leave to refer for a more minute account of the part taken therein by my regiment.
        I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

                                                                    FRED. C. WlNKLER,
                                                                            Lieut. Col., Comdg. Twenty-sixth Regt. Wis. Vol. Infty.

                                                                    Capt. C. H. YOUNG,
                                                                            A. A. A. G., 3d Brig., 3d Div., 20th Army Corps.


O.R.--SERIES I--VOLUME XLIV [S# 92]
NOVEMBER 15-DECEMBER 21, 1864.--The Savannah (Georgia) Campaign.
No. 137.--Report of Lieut. Col. Frederick C. Winkler, Twenty-sixth Wisconsin Infantry, of operations September 4-December 21.

                                                            HDQRS. TWENTY-SIXTH WISCONSIN VOLUNTEER INFANTRY,
                                                            Savannah, Ga., December 24, 1864.

SIR:

        I have the honor to submit the following report of operations, required by circular of 23d instant:
Having pitched camp in Atlanta the 4th of September, my regiment remained there in peace and quiet till October 8, when, pursuant to orders received the night before, I marched it to the Chattahoochee railroad bridge, there reporting to Col. F. C. Smith, commanding post. Here we remained as part of the garrison until November 14, when, having the day previous contributed our quarter of a mile of destruction to the railroad between the bridge and that city, we marched to Atlanta with Colonel Smith, and were there ordered to join our own [brigade] again, which we did. November 15, we started from Atlanta about 10 a.m., and that day and ensuing night wended our way in rear of a laboring wagon train to Stone Mountain. November 16, marched to Rock Bridge and crossed Yellow River. About 10 a.m. November 18 arrived at Social Circle, and there commenced destroying railroad. We worked in different places; destroyed in all about half a mile's length. November 19, arrived at Madison and again destroyed a short piece of road immediately adjacent to the town, perhaps 250 or 300 yards. November 22, we arrived at Milledgeville. November 26, at Sandersville. November 27, at Davisborough. November 29, crossed the Ogeechee and marched through Louisville.
December 6, arrived at Springfield, and on the 10th in front of Savannah, where we took position. The next day the brigade was advanced and my regiment placed on the extreme left of the line. December 12, I was ordered to take my regiment to the right of the brigade and there take position between the Savannah and Charleston and Central Railroads, relieving the troops of the Fourteenth Corps then there. This I did, and there remained somewhat exposed to rebel shot and shell, but without sustaining a casualty, till December 21, when we entered the city of Savannah without opposition.
        We captured on the march about one dozen mules and three horses. As to the amount of provisions foraged, it is impossible to make an estimate; but I can safely say that from the time that we left Rock Bridge until we arrived in the vicinity of Springfield, two men and a pack-mule from each company, sent out daily, brought in sufficient to subsist the command wholly.
        The regiment enjoyed the best health throughout the campaign. The ambulance with the regiment was but little used. Two men were with the division hospital ambulances a portion of the time, but there are none of those present with this army in hospital now.
        I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

                                                                    FRED. C. WINKLER,
                                                                            Lieut. Col., Commanding Twenty-sixth Wisconsin Volunteers.

                                                                    Capt. C. H. YOUNG,
                                                                            Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., 3d Brig., 3d Div., 20th Army Corps.


O.R.--SERIES I--VOLUME XLVII/1 [S# 98]
JANUARY 1-APRIL 26, 1865.--The Campaign of the Carolinas.
No. 203.--Report of Lieut. Col. Frederick C. Winkler, Twenty-sixth Wisconsin Infantry, of operations January 16-March 24.



                                                            HDQRS. TWENTY-SIXTH WISCONSIN VOLUNTEER INFANTRY,
                                                            Near Goldsborough, N. C., March 25, 1865.

CAPTAIN:

        In compliance with circular from brigade headquarters, I have the honor to report the following operations of my regiment since January 16 instant:
On that day we were camped on Hardee's farm, in Beaufort District, S. C., near the city of Savannah, Ga. The brigade starting for Hardeeville that day, we were left as part of a guard for a supply train then loading. On the 18th we marched as a convoy to this train to Hardee-ville, S. C., there rejoined the brigade, and went into camp, where we remained till January 29, when we started for Robertsville, which place we reached about noon the 30th ultimo.
        Here we found two days' more rest, and then on the morning of February 2, communication with the rear being severed, entered upon the long march. On the morning of the 3d we passed through Lawtonville, and the evening of the 4th camped near Allendale. Here my first forage party came in, bringing an abundance of supplies. We continued our march without interruption; on the morning of the 6th crossed the Big Salkehatchie at Buford's Bridge. The 7th, crossed Little Salkehatchie at Dowling's Mills, and in the evening reached the railroad about one mile east of Graham's Turnout. Worked at the destruction of the railroad west of Graham's on the 8th. On the 9th we marched west to a couple of miles beyond Blackville, and worked vigorously at the destruction of the railroad till night. The 10th, we marched to White Pond and continued the same work, leaving off at night at the Thirty-third Mile Post from Augusta. The next day left the railroad and resumed our march northward. The 12th, crossed the South Fork of the Edisto, on the 13th the North Fork, and on the 16th came in sight of the capital of South Carolina. Thence marching westward a piece on the 17th, we crossed the Saluda on the 18th, and Broad River the 20th. Passed through Winnsborough the 21st and arrived on the banks of the Catawba River the 22d and crossed on a pontoon bridge the same night. On the 26th we arrived at Hanging Rock, where remained the next day.
        Resumed our journey on the 28th and arrived at Chesterfield March 3, and to the Great Pedee, near Sneedsborough, N. C., on the 4th, where we remained the 5th. On this day 1 officer and 10 enlisted men, part of a forage party engaged in grinding corn at a mill, were captured by a rebel cavalry force disguised as Union foragers. March 6, marched to Cheraw and there crossed the Great Pedee the ensuing night. The 10th we got across a series of swamps and the Lumber River and reached the city of Fayetteville the 11th; we moved through the city and across the Cape Fear the 13th. Went on a reconnaissance to Black River the 14th and marched northward on the Raleigh plank road the 15th. Continued this march on the 16th, but soon came upon the enemy and became engaged in a hot skirmish, which continued till night, the enemy being driven from two lines of lighter works to his main line of breast-works. The regiment lost in this skirmish 2 officers killed, 5 enlisted men killed, and 10 wounded. The next day, the enemy having left, we marched over his works to Averasborough, where my regiment took position on the Smithfield road. The 18th, changed our route to the eastward and crossed Black River. In the afternoon of the 19th we came upon the enemy in force, troops in advance of us being already fighting. We were first formed as a reserve in rear of the First Division, Twentieth Army Corps, but soon moved with the brigade to the right of that division. Advancing in line, the brigade soon met the enemy and a severe engagement ensued, which continued till dark, when the enemy withdrew, leaving his dead on the field.
        My regiment was in the second line throughout the engagement; gave no fire and received but a light one at the hands of the enemy, by which 1 enlisted man was killed and 4 wounded. The next morning we moved back to our first position; in the afternoon moved to the left flank and there intrenched. On the morning of the 21st moved out in  support of the picket-line to reconnoiter the enemy's picket-line, and returned to camp. In the afternoon broke camp and marched back to our first reserve position. Starting thence on the 22d we crossed the Neuse River on the 23d and arrived at Goldsborough on the 24th.
        Of the amount of provisions taken from the country it is very difficult to form an estimate, even approximately accurate. From the 4th of February till the 4th of March, when we reached the Great Pedee, our foragers provided us with an abundance of supplies, so that we could well have dispensed with even the small quantities of hard bread that were issued, and had accumulated a respectable quantity of meat and meal. After that we procured enough, in addition to our savings, to give each man a good ration every day. The whole amount taken from the country may be about as follows: Eight hundred pounds of wheat flour, 4,000 pounds of corn meal, 550 bushels of sweet potatoes, 13,000 pounds of meat, 900 pounds of lard, 150 pounds of dried fruit. How much forage the pack animals, forage animals, and animals proper in the regiment consumed and destroyed, it is still more difficult to tell, but I should put it at about 1,200 bushels of corn. My foragers destroyed about 300 bales of cotton.
        Casualties.
        I have the honor to be, very respectfully,

                                                                    FRED. C. WINKLER,
                                                                            Lieut. Col., Commanding Twenty-sixth Wisconsin Volunteers.

                                                                    Capt. H. G. H. TARR,
                                                                            Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., 3d Brig., 3d Div., 20th Army Corps.

-----

                                                            HDQRS. TWENTY-SIXTH WISCONSIN VOLUNTEER INFANTRY,
                                                            Near Goldsborough, N. C., March 25, 1865.

CAPTAIN:

        In compliance with circular from brigade headquarters, I have the honor to report the following operations of my regiment since January 16 instant:
        On that day we were camped on Hardee's farm, in Beaufort District, S. C., near the city of Savannah, Ga. The brigade starting for Hardeeville that day, we were left as part of a guard for a supply train then loading. On the 18th we marched as a convoy to this train to Hardee-ville, S.C., there rejoined the brigade, and went into camp, where we remained till January 29, when we started for Robertsville, which place we reached about noon the 30th ultimo.
        Here we found two days' more rest, and then on the morning of February 2, communication with the rear being severed, entered upon the long march. On the morning of the 3d we passed through Lawtonville, and the evening of the 4th camped near Allendale. Here my first forage party came in, bringing an abundance of supplies. We continued our march without interruption; on the morning of the 6th crossed the Big Salkehatchie at Buford's Bridge. The 7th, crossed Little Salkehatchie at Dowling's Mills, and in the evening reached the railroad about one mile east of Graham's Turnout. Worked at the destruction of the railroad west of Graham's on the 8th. On the 9th we marched west to a couple of miles beyond Blackville, and worked vigorously at the destruction of the railroad till night. The 10th, we marched to White Pond and continued the same work, leaving off at night at the Thirty-third Mile Post from Augusta. The next day left the railroad and resumed our march northward. The 12th, crossed the South Fork of the Edisto, on the 13th the North Fork, and on the 16th came in sight of the capital of South Carolina. Thence marching westward a piece on the 17th, we crossed the Saluda on the 18th, and Broad River the 20th. Passed through Winnsborough the 21st and arrived on the banks of the Catawba River the 22d and crossed on a pontoon bridge the same night. On the 26th we arrived at Hanging Rock, where remained the next day.
        Resumed our journey on the 28th and arrived at Chesterfield March 3, and to the Great Pedee, near Sneedsborough, N. C., on the 4th, where we remained the 5th. On this day 1 officer and 10 enlisted men, part of a forage party engaged in grinding corn at a mill, were captured by a rebel cavalry force disguised as Union foragers. March 6, marched to Cheraw and there crossed the Great Pedee the ensuing night. The 10th we got across a series of swamps and the Lumber River and reached the city of Fayetteville the 11th; we moved through the city and across the Cape Fear the 13th. Went on a reconnaissance to Black River the 14th and marched northward on the Raleigh plank road the 15th. Continued this march on the 16th, but soon came upon the enemy and became engaged in a hot skirmish, which continued till night, the enemy being driven from two lines of lighter works to his main line of breast-works. The regiment lost in this skirmish 2 officers killed, 5 enlisted men killed, and 10 wounded. The next day, the enemy having left, we marched over his works to Averasborough, where my regiment took position on the Smithfield road. The 18th, changed our route to the eastward and crossed Black River. In the afternoon of the 19th we came upon the enemy in force, troops in advance of us being already fighting. We were first formed as a reserve in rear of the First Division, Twentieth Army Corps, but soon moved with the brigade to the right of that division. Advancing in line, the brigade soon met the enemy and a severe engagement ensued, which continued till dark, when the enemy withdrew, leaving his dead on the field.
        My regiment was in the second line throughout the engagement; gave no fire and received but a light one at the hands of the enemy, by which 1 enlisted man was killed and 4 wounded. The next morning we moved back to our first position; in the afternoon moved to the left flank and there intrenched. On the morning of the 21st moved out in support of the picket-line to reconnoiter the enemy's picket-line, and returned to camp. In the afternoon broke camp and marched back to our first reserve position. Starting thence on the 22d we crossed the Neuse River on the 23d and arrived at Goldsborough on the 24th.
        Of the amount of provisions taken from the country it is very difficult to form an estimate, even approximately accurate. From the 4th of February till the 4th of March, when we reached the Great Pedee, our foragers provided us with an abundance of supplies, so that we could well have dispensed with even the small quantities of hard bread that were issued, and had accumulated a respectable quantity of meat and meal. After that we procured enough, in addition to our savings, to give each man a good ration every day. The whole amount taken from the country may be about as follows: Eight hundred pounds of wheat flour, 4,000 pounds of corn meal, 550 bushels of sweet potatoes, 13,000 pounds of meat, 900 pounds of lard, 150 pounds of dried fruit. How much forage the pack animals, forage animals, and animals proper in the regiment consumed and destroyed, it is still more difficult to tell, but I should put it at about 1,200 bushels of corn. My foragers destroyed about 300 bales of cotton.
        I have the honor to be, very respectfully,

                                                                    FRED. C. WINKLER,
                                                                            Lieut. Col., Commanding Twenty-sixth Wisconsin Volunteers.

                                                                    Capt. H. G. H. TARR,
                                                                            Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., 3d Brig., 3d Div., 20th Army Corps.