REPORT OF THE OPERATIONS

OF THE

3d Brigade, 3d Division of the 20th Army Corps,

IN THE

ATLANTA CAMPAIGN OF 1864,

BY THE

BRIGADE COMMANDER, COLONEL (NOW GENERAL)

JAMES WOOD.

__________________

With an Appendix containing the Proceedings and Address of General Wood on the
Dedication of the Monument of the 136th Regt. N. Y. V. I., on the Battlefield of Gettysburg,
October 16, 1888.
__________________

ALBANY
WEED, PARSONS & CO., PRINTERS.
1889.

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THE ATLANTA CAMPAIGN
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        The ATLANTA CAMPAIGN was one of the most important effective and illustrious campaigns of the war of the rebellion the Union arms in 1863 had on the whole been successful the battle of Gettysburg had been fought and won and Lee had been driven from his invasion of Maryland. Vicksburg after a long struggle had been captured with the army that defended it the investment of Chattanooga had been relieved and the Rebel army under Bragg had been defeated and driven from his strong position on Missionary Ridge the campaign of 1864 was thought to have opened auspiciously. Grant had been appointed commander-in-chief of all the armies and military forces of the United States. Lee, with a well disciplined, brave and gallant army, confronted the army of the Potomac on the Rappahannock. Johnson, securely intrenched at Dalton with a brave and valiant army, stood face to face to Sherman with the gage of battle. The Rebels showed a greater power of endurance and resistance that was {?}. The "on to Richmond" was one bloody battlefield with the sacrifice of slaughtered hecatombs of Union soldiers and resulted not in the capture of Richmond, but in placing the Union army on the south side of the James river and in effect besieging Lee and his army in Richmond. Johnson with tactical skill and consummate ability avoided the blows offered by his able opponent and led him by skillful retreats away from his base of sup{?} to the interior of the Confederate States the people of the North in view of. This long and bloody struggle and the vitality exhibited by the Rebels became despondent General gloom and depression overspread the land. Even our great and devoted president was almost overwhelmed by it. Though renominated by the Republican party for re-election he was apprehensive of defeat.

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The Democratic party that party on which the Rebels relied to aid them in their struggle had become arrogant and aggressive. Their convention held at Chicago in August 1864 to nominate a candidate for president against President Lincoln declared that the four years of war which was to restore the Union was a failure. The capture of Atlanta on the 2d day of September after the brilliant campaign which commenced on the 1st day of May rifted the cloud of gloom and depression I that overspread the North and through it could be seen shining the bright sun of success. With that capture and the defeat of Hood's army the doom of the rebellion was sealed; and the surrender of Lee's army at Appomattox and of Johnson's army at Raleigh, was its necessary and legitimate consequence. In that campaign I took an active part as the commander of a brigade in the 3d Division 20th Army Corps. The following report written at Atlanta after the close of the campaign from memoranda kept by me in writing from day today shows its operations in detail. In the same division Colonel now General Harrison, President of the United States served and commanded at first a regiment (the 70th Ind. V. I.), and after the 29th of June the 1st Brigade of that division. During the pendency of the political campaign of 1888 a "Life of Ben Harrison" was written and published by General Lew Wallace also a volunteer officer in the Union army the reading of this "Life" awakened and revived my recollections of the campaign in which we both took a part. I thought some of the statements in "The Life" did me and my command injustice. I procured from the War Department a copy of my report. It is on file in that department, and unprinted and unpublished. All the incidents appertaining to that campaign I think should be made known. It was the turning point in the war of the rebellion. And it seems to me that the truth of history demands that every one who has knowledge of the events of that campaign should tell his story, that mistakes, if any, may be corrected, and equal and exact justice done to all who participated in it.

                                                                                                                        J. W.

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REPORT
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                                                                                HEADQUARTERS 3D BRIGADE,
                                                                                3D DIVISION, 20TH ARMY CORPS,
                                                                                ATLANTA, GA., Sept. 23, 1864.

CAPTAIN:

        I have the honor to submit the following report of the operations of the brigade under my command, composed of the 136th N. Y., 55th Ohio, 33d Mass., 73d Ohio and 26th Wis. Infantry Regiments to which the 20th Conn. V. I. was afterward added since the 1st day of May last.
        On the evening of that day I received orders to march at six o'clock the following morning.
        At the hour named we broke our winter camp in Lookout Valley, and took up our line of march on the Chattanooga road, following the 1st Brigade of this division.
        After passing around the foot of Lookout Mountain we left Chattanooga on the left passed through Rossville and reached Gordon's Mills at about half past three o'clock P. M. where we encamped for the night having marched the distance of fifteen mile.
        On the 3d of May we occupied substantially the same position taken the previous afternoon. A slight change was made for the purpose of getting more favorable ground on which to encamp.
        On the 4th at half past six o'clock A. M. the brigade marched from Gordon's Mills to Pleasant Grove Church, near Taylor's Ridge, and took a position formed in two lines deployed, on the right of the division, near the East Chickamauga creek. The distance marched was eleven miles. The brigade occupied this position until the morning of the 6th.

[Pg. 6]

During the time a substantial bridge for infantry was built across the creek by the brigade pioneers
        On the 6th, the brigade marched at five A. M., from Pleasant Grove Church to Leet's Tanner on Peavine creek a distance of six and one half miles and took up a position in one line deployed with one regiment in reserve which position the brigade occupied until next morning.
        On the 7th, at five o'clock A. M. the brigade marched from Leet's, through Gordon's Gap, passing Gordon's Springs to Woods Store, at the road leading to Buzzard Roost Gap a distance of fifteen and one-half miles. Here the brigade was put in position in a single deployed line. The 33d Mass. was detached from the brigade in pursuance of orders received from division head-quarters and directed to report to Col. Ross, Comdg. 2d Brigade, who occupied the crest of a hill about one mile in advance of this brigade.
        On the morning of the 8th I received from division head-quarters an order of which the following is a copy:

"Col. WOOD Comdg. Brig.:
        "The Major General directs that in compliance with the inclosed orders you move your brigade out in front of Col. Ross' position and make a reconnaissance toward the enemy's position at Buzzard Roost. Guard well your flanks keep a strong line of skirmishers well advanced; don't attack him in his intrenchments, if you should find such to be the case. If you can, draw him on to Col. Ross' position should he follow you. If he has abandoned Buzzard Roost and you get possession look well to your right. The General will be at Col. Ross on the ridge.
                                                            "Very Respectfully, etc.
                                                                                "JOHN SPEED,
                                                                                                        "A. A. G."

        Which order was accompanied by instructions directing the manner in which the reconnaissance was to be made.
        In pursuance of the orders I immediately got my command under arms and took up the line of march for Buzzard Roost Gap.

[Pg. 7]

After passing the 2d Brigade (Col. Ross) encamped on the crest of a hill a short distance east of Woods store, I threw forward an advance guard and ordered them deployed as skirmishers. At the same time I covered the flanks of the column with a line of flankers. In this way the column advanced toward Buzzard Roost Gap. When about two miles from the gap, the skirmishers in front of the column came in contact with and crossed the advanced skirmish line of Carline's Brigade of Johnson's Division of the 14th Corps. The brigade was in position about one hundred yards in the rear of the skirmish line and covered all the approaches to Buzzard Roost Gap from the west. I was informed by a Major in charge of the skirmish line of this brigade that he had advanced his skirmish line close up to the enemy's works in the gap; that the enemy occupied the gap in force; that he made a demonstration to attack the skirmish line so advanced in and thereupon the Major in pursuance of insurrections withdrew his line to the position he then occupied. As this condition of affairs was not contemplated by the orders and instructions I was ordered to make, I thought if advisable to communicate with Maj. Gen. Butterfield, who was in the rear of my column. Accordingly I halted the column and sent a staff officer to Maj. Gen. Butterfield with instructions to advise him of the information I had received, and receive his orders. Maj. Gen. Butterfield immediately rode up to the front of the column, and, as I understood had an interview with same Major referred to from Carline's Brigade and received the same information Maj. Gen. Butterfield however, ordered me to proceed with the reconnaissance, and to feel the enemy. I, therefore, ordered four companies forward deployed them as skirmishers and threw out a line of pickets to protect my right flank. I also ordered the 73d Ohio to deploy in line of battle and to advance with and I support the skirmishers the balance of the brigade, was placed in position behind the crest of a hill, in the front, and at the foot of which the skirmishers were deployed. The ground between the position occupied by the brigade and the valley into which Buzzard Roost Gap debouches toward the west was a series of hills running nearly parallel to the valley.

[Pg. 8]

In front of the right of my line, and bounding the valley on the east, and the gap on the south, is Rocky Face Mountain, at the foot of which and running nearly across the west entrance to the gap where it sweeps around and runs through the gap, is Mill Creek, a stream with soft, muddy banks and bottom, not easily fordable. On the cast side of the creek, and leaving, but a narrow space between its east bank, is a high batik or bluff, which seems to be a spur of Rocky Face Mountain, and with which it is connected, making, however, quite a depression between the highest part of the bluff and the mountain. The distance from this high point of the bluff and the mountain in which the depression occurs is, perhaps one hundred and fifty yards. From the high part of the bluff, along the curve of the creek, to the north, there is an easy descent until it is lost in the bottom land of the creek, where it sweeps around to flow through the gap. Here also the railroad coming from Tunnel Hill, sweeps around the hill from the south side of Buzzard Roost Gap, and passes over the creek through the gap. From the crest of the bluff and the section of Rocky Face Mountain with which it is connected, the ground descends quite rapidly to the east. From this crest the enemy's works for the protection of the gap are visible. Along this crest and stretching across the gap the enemy had a line of skirmishers. By the direction of Maj. Gen. Butterfield, under whose personal supervision all the movements of my brigade were made, the line of skirmishers, increased and strengthened from time to time by reinforcements from the line, were pushed forward until they occupied the crest of the bluff, and the declivity between it and Rocky Face Mountain, and the base of the mountain as high as the highest parts of the bluff. In order to reach this position it was necessary to cross Mill Creek, and ascend the almost perpendicular side of the bluff the crest of which was held by the rebel sharpshooters. Two companies of skirmishers from the 55th Ohio, commanded by Capts. Bolt and Osborne, were ordered to take the crest.

[Pg. 9]

Promptly and steadily they climbed the side of the bluff in the face of a continued fire from the enemy's skirmishers, drove the in from and occupied the crest. The conduct of Capts. Bolt and Osborne and the men of their command on this occasion the coolness and bravery displayed by them, is deserving of the highest praise and reflects credit upon the gallant regiment of which they form a part. As soon as they gained, the skirmish line at that point was strengthened by three companies from the 73d Ohio. Two companies of the 33d Mass. held the low ground on the left, between the creek and the railroad. On the right two companies from the 26th Wis. were thrown across the creek (which at that point was deep, but which they crossed on a fallen across it), and were deployed as skirmishers, and ordered to ascend to the crest which formed the depression between the bluff and Rocky Face Mountain, and which connected the two. The order was executed in a satisfactorily manner. The enemy made, but a feeble resistance to our advance the enemy showed no disposition to attack. We had left his position, discovered the nature, extent and character of his works, and the object of the reconnaissance seemed to be accomplished. The day was drawing to a close, and I was ordered by Maj. Gen. Butterfield as soon as it was dark to withdraw my skirmishers, and with my command returned to the camp I had left in the morning. I advanced the 136th N. Y. to cover the movement of withdrawing the skirmishers and was making disposition to execute the order of the Maj. Gen. Comdg. who held at that time left the field when I received the following order:

                                                                                "HEADQUARTERS 20TH CORPS, May 9th, 1864

"Maj. Gen. BUTTERFIELD, Comdg. Div.:
        "The Maj. General Comdg. directs that you hold yourself in readiness to comply with the following dispatch just received from Dept. Head-Qr.:

[Pg. 10]

        "Gen. Howard's and Gen. Palmers skirmishers will be advanced early tomorrow morning the (9th inst.) The General Comdg. desires that you order Butterfield's skirmishers to cooperate with Gen. Palmers as the latter sweep along the side of the ridge by advancing over the ground which ties directly in front of them.
                                                                                "Very respectfully,
                                                                                                "W. D. WHIPPLE,
                                                                                                        "Brig. Gen. & A. A. G."

                                                                                "HEAD-QRS. 3D DIV., 20TH ARMY CORPS.

        "The Maj. Gen. Comdg. directs that Col. Wood comply with the requirements of the within.

                                                                                                           "JOHN SPEED,
                                                                                                                    "A. A. G."

        I immediately countermanded the order to withdraw the skirmishers and directed them as well as the 136th N. Y., to hold the position they occupied for the night and that scouts be sent forward from the skirmish line to reconnoiter, and obtain, if possible the information desired by the Maj. Gen. Comdg. the Dept of the Cumberland. As the enemy kept persistently concealed behind his works, nothing could be discovered except that his position was very strong, if not impregnable; and that an attempt to dislodge him by a direct attack could not be expected to succeed. As I had done all in my power to comply with the instructions last received, and as night and darkness had now come upon us, the operations of the day closed. The 73d Ohio had marched for their camp under the order received from Maj. Gen. Butterfield before the last orders, above set forth had been promulgated. After dark the 55th Ohio and 33d Mass. followed leaving the skirmishers detailed from these regiments in the position they occupied during the day. The 26th Wis., which had been held in reserve in the position first taken up, was permitted to bivouac for the night as, it was amply protected by the 14th Army Corps, being connected with it, and covered in front by the pickets of that Corps. After these dispositions were made an order was received from the Maj. General commanding the division to withdraw the136th N. Y., and the skirmishers entirely out of the gap and the valley in front of it, bivouac there in a secure position on the hill.

[Pg. 11]

This order was complied with, and as Brig Gen. Carline had advanced his brigade and his  picket line, it brought them within his lines. This finished the operations the day, and I returned to my headquarters at Wood's store.
        On the morning of the 9th, I received the following orders:

"Col. WOOD, Comdg. Brig.:
        "The following instructions have just been received,"

"To Maj. Gen. HOOKER:
        "Push your reconnaissance as far as possible tonight, and endeavor to find out if the enemy is at Buzzard Roost in force. Communicate results.

                                                                                "GEN. THOMAS"

"Maj Gen. Hooker directs that the force here act in accordance with the above. You will be governed by these instructions and report to Gen. Thomas direct, as well as to me.

                                                                                "GEN. BUTTERFIELD"

        I immediately directed the officer in charge of the skirmishers (Maj. Higgins of the 73d Ohio) to see that the order complied with. Subsequently, and on the same morning, I received orders to continue the reconnaissance commenced the day before. In compliance, therewith, I immediate concentrated my brigade in the valley in front of the gap the skirmishers again took the position from which they were withdrawn the night before, being compelled the second time to drive the enemy's skirmishers therefrom. The 136th N. Y. and 26th Wis. were deployed in line of the battle in front of the bluff. The 55th Ohio was ordered to cross the creek and hold the bluff which had been taken by the skirmishers. I was ordered by Maj. Gen. Butterfield to throw a regiment across the creek near the Rocky Face Mountain and to advance it to the crest of the spur that connected the bluff with the mountain.

[Pg. 12]

To comply with this order it became necessary to build a bridge across Mill Creek. This was done with commendable dispatch, by the division pioneers. I ordered across the 73d Ohio, and it pushed forward promptly, to fulfill the order of the division commander. In the meantime the enemy had planted a section of artillery on the crest of Rocky Face Mountain and opened with grape and canister on the 55th Ohio. That regiment was promptly withdrawn out of range to the west side of the creek, at the foot of the bluff. The enemy's guns, however, were very soon silenced by some artillery of the 14th Corps. By direction of Maj. Gen. Butterfield I ordered the 33d Mass. which up to this time had been held in reserve, to cross the creek, and, if possible, to gain the crest of Rocky Face Mountain. To cover the operations of the two regiments across the creek, the 26th Wis. and 136th N. Y. were moved to the right and deployed on the west side of the creek in the rear of the 73d Ohio and 33d Mass. While these last named regiments were engaged in carrying out the orders they had received, the skirmishers of the 73d Ohio, having gained the crest of the spur so as to overlook the enemy's works in the gap, and the skirmishers of the 33d Mass. having ascended mote than half way to the crest of Rocky Face Mountain, I received in order that my brigade would be relieved by Carline's Brigade of the 14th Corps. After being relieved, I marched my brigade to the Presbyterian Church, on the road from Woods Store to Buzzard Roost Gap and encamped. This ended the operations of my brigade in connection with the reconnaissance into Buzzard Roost Gap.
        On Wednesday, the 11th, at four o'clock A. M., the brigade in pursuance of an order from division headquarters marched from its position near Wood's Store (to which place it had returned after the reconnaissance) to Snake Creek Gap, and about half way through the gap, arriving at twelve o'clock P. M., a distance of fourteen miles. Here I was ordered to put the brigade into camp, and to widen and put in good condition that part of the road through the gap, between where Gen. Williamson, of the 1st Division, was encamped, and the camp of my brigade, to make the of sufficient capacity to allow two wagon trains and a column of infantry to march abreast.

[Pg. 13]

I divided the work into as many sections as I had regiments, and as soon as the tools were provided, put as many men on the road as could be advantageously employed. By nightfall I had that portion of the road apportioned to my brigade completed as ordered.
        On the 12th, at ten o'clock A. M., the brigade broke camp and marched through the Gap, a distance of four miles and took up a portion in a single deployed line in rear of the 15th A. C.
        On the 13th, at nine A. M., pursuant to orders, the brigade marched, with the army of which it forms a part, upon the enemy of Resaca. The brigade formed its front line of battle about two o'clock, P. M., at right angles to the line formed in the crest of a hill running east and west by the 2d Brigade, and perpendicular to and crossing the road leading from Dalton to Rome. While in this position were by an order delivered by Maj. Gen. Hooker in person, detached from the line, and was ordered to make a reconnaissance toward the enemy's lines and ascertain whether there was a road by which artillery could be place in position on a hill in our front and near the enemy. The reconnaissance was made as directed and on its return Lt. Col. Faulkner, the commanding officer of the regiment, reported that the hill in question was in the possession the troops of the 15th A. C.  The brigade by order then changed its position to the rear of the left of the 15th A. C. where it was held in reserve in column by division. After sundown I was ordered to relieve Carline's Brigade of the 14th A. C., position in two lines of the crest of a wooded hill in our front, connecting on its right with the 15th A. C.  Owing to the woods and the darkness the task was not an easy one;, but it was accomplished with reasonable promptness. The brigade made its connections with the 15th A. C. on the right and Wards Brigade of the division on the left, and bivouacked for the night.

[Pg. 14]

In front of us was a valley through which ran a creek. On the opposite side of the valley and distant about six hundred yards, was a chain of hills occupied by the enemy. These hills he was diligently engaged in fortifying during the night. On the morning of the 14th of May the enemy's skirmishers and sharpshooters opened fire upon our skirmish line;, but owing to the long range our casualties were not numerous the brigade held the position during the day. After dark of this day, I was ordered to protect the men by works in their front; to be made of logs and earth, and to be thrown up with as little noise as possible, so as not to attract the enemy's attention. The men immediately commenced the work, but before it was completed and at about twelve o'clock A. M., of the night, the brigade was relieved by Gen. Morgan's Brigade of the 14th A. C.  Upon being relieved the brigade marched to the open field in the rear of the position it occupied, and bivouacked till morning.
        On the morning of the 15th, at daylight, the brigade with the division of which it forms a part, marched to the Dalton and Resaca road, on the extreme left of our army. Here I received the following order from Maj. Gen. Butterfield commanding the division:

"Col. WOOD Comdg. Brigade:
        "The division will move to attack the enemy's line. The column of attack will be formed by Gen. Wards Brigade, Col. Coburn supporting on his right, Col. Wood on his left. Gen. Ward will form his column by regimental front, and push a bold and vigorous attack with bayonets; a strong line of skirmishers in front. Col. Coburn will form on his right and rear in echelon, with two lines Col. Wood will form on Gen. Ward's left and rear in echelon will guard his left flank and support the assault. Gen. Ward's column will keep well to the right of the Dalton road.
                                                                                "D. BUTTERFIELD."

        I moved my brigade forward to the hill referred to and placed it in the formation directed.

[Pg. 15]

Before the attack was ordered Maj. Tremain, Act'g. A. D. C., Maj. Gen. Butterfield's Staff, came and said that the situation of the ground was somewhat different from that it was understood to be at the time the written orders were issued that; instead of acting as a support to Gen. Ward, it was assigned to me to assault and take the hill then in my front and that the manner of doing it, and the formation of the brigade was left to my own judgment; that Gen. Butterfield desired the attack to be made at once, as Gen. Ward was ready to advance. This was to me very embarrassing. I had not reconnoitered the ground; most of it was covered with a dense forest. I knew nothing of the strength of the enemy, or his position or the situation of his works in front. I went forward and made hurried and imperfect reconnaissance. It seemed to me that I was too far to the right. I, therefore, moved my right regiment by the left flank to the left, and changed its front by a half wheel to the left. I changed the formation of the brigade from one line in echelon to two lines, putting three regiments in the front line and two in the second, throwing out in front a strong line of skirmishers. This formation, made in a very hurried manner, being completed, gave the order to advance. Promptly and regularly the men moved up the hill and drove the enemy from the crest in the most gallant manner. When about two thirds of the way the left of the line, in passing out the woods into an open space, encountered a galling cross fire from the left, and which seemed to come from the enemy posted in a piece of woods to the left and in front of me. Not knowing what, if any, disposition had been made to protect our left flank, and fearing a flank movement from the enemy, I changed the front of the 73d Ohio so to meet the threatened danger. A few well-directed volleys from this regiment seemed to silence the firing front the woods. Soon afterward I saw troops of the 1st division (Brig. Gen.. Williams) going into position on my left, which removed a fear of a flank attack. I  then ordered the 73d Ohio to resume its original front and move forward with the other part of the brigade on the crest of the hill.

[Pg. 16]

The hill was divided by an indentation on its top running in the same direction with the line of battle making two crests. In my front the crest first reached in a measure overlooked and commanded the second., but my order was to occupy the advanced crest. The order was obeyed although the position of the men was such that they were under fire of the enemy in their works. As I anticipated before the attack began my right regiment was too far to the right, as there was some mistake or misunderstanding on the part of the 2d Brigade. I understood that the 2d Brigade was to support the 1st Brigade on the right, but before the crest of the hill was half gained, the regiments of the 2d Brigade, after firing a volley into the 1st Brigade, were found on its left in no little confusion. The men ran over and through the right of my line, mingling with the right regiment and creating so much confusion as to render the regiment (26th Wis.) almost unserviceable, as well as causing great hindrance to the regiment next to it (33d Mass.). Major Winkler with commendable skill and ability, with no little difficulty, extricated his men from the confused mass into which they had become involved, and brought the men again, reformed, into line. This hill being a position of much importance to the enemy, it was not to be supposed that he would yield it without a struggle, or without making an effort to retake it after being driven off. Accordingly regimental commanders were cautioned that they might expect to be in turn attacked, but that they must hold the position at all hazards the expectation seemed to be well founded for the enemy made two furious assaults upon my line, but was gallantly and successfully repulsed. As the second attack seemed to be a very determined one and as my men were much exhausted, I sent word for reinforcements. I knew that Gen. Geary, with his division, was in my rear and with a considerable force near the first crest of the hill. I went to him in person for aid. I failed to obtain it, and the third and last attack on my line was successfully repulsed before reinforcements reached me. The day was now far spent my men were exhausted.

[Pg. 17]

The casualties had been large. At my request Maj. Gen. Hooker ordered my brigade relieved by troops from the 2d Division. After being relieved I marched the brigade into the valley on the Dalton Road where it bivouacked for the night. The conduct of the entire command was such as to met my highest commendation. Both officers and men displayed praiseworthy gallantry and bravery. I saw no shirking, no unnecessary straggling. The wounded, those who were able, took care of themselves, and those who were not, lay upon the ground until they were removed by the ambulance. My thanks are due to their regimental commanders, for the distinguished gallantry exhibited by them in this engagement, and for the marked skill and ability with which they handled their respective commands. I commend them and their conduct the favorable consideration of those whose duty it is, and whose pleasure it may be, to reward those who have rendered important service on the field of battle. Early in the engagement Major Robbins, of the 55th Ohio, fell mortally wounded. Soon after Capt. Peck, of the same regiment, was killed, and in the last attempt of the enemy to dislodge us from the hill, Col. Gambee, the worthy and able commander of the same regiment, fell while cheering and encouraging his men to hold the ground. I desire to pay a passing tribute to the worth, ability, and high character of these officers.  By their fall the country and the service, I have suffered an irreparable loss. It is with area sense of loss that I refer to the fall of the lamented Col. Gambee, a gentleman by instinct, possessed a high sense of honor, of warm social qualities, he attached himself as a friend to all with whom he associated. Entering the service as a captain in the line, he was for his peculiar fitness promoted to the command of the regiment.  Though a strict disciplinarian, he had the confidence, the respect, the love of the officers and men of his command. As second in command of the brigade, I relied on his good I sound judgment and sense to aid me in the discharge of the arduous and important duties of command. He regarded with abhorrence to the rebellion which threatened to overturn our National government, and its guilty abettors, and he entered the military service not from choice, but from a sense of duty and the dictates of pure patriotism.

[Pg. 18]

Upon the altar of his country lie has sacrificed his life and scaled his principles with his blood. In the engagement in which lie lost his life lie bore himself with distinguished gallantry and by his example and the able manner in which he handled his regiment, contributed materially to the successful result of the attack. May his name be cherished and his memory preserved so long as bravery, loyalty and patriotism are regarded as virtues among men.
        On Monday, the 16th, the brigade marched through Resaca (the enemy having retreated during the night) toward Fields Mills on the Oustanola River, which river was crossed by means of a rope ferry. The brigade crossed the river and got into position on the other side at about half past eleven P. M., having marched the distance of sixteen miles. The crossing occupied about two hours.
        On the 17th, at about two o'clock P. M., the brigade marched from Fields Ferry toward Calhoun, on the Cassville Road, and went into camp at about nine o'clock P. M., having marched seventeen miles. On the 18th, at five o'clock A. M., the brigade took up the line of march toward Cassville the road was obstructed by troops and trains, consequently we could move only by cutting a side road. This was being done under the direction of Maj. Gen. commanding the division, when a side road was struck on which the brigade marched. Late in the afternoon, as the brigade emerged on the Cassville Road, it was soon discovered that the enemy, in some force, was in our immediate front. The 136th N. Y. was then formed and deployed, skirmishers advanced for the purpose of ascertaining the strength of the enemy. In this way the brigade advanced about two miles, when our further advance was obstructed by the enemy's line of rifle pits and artillery the brigade bivouacked on the plateau between Calhoun and Cassville, having marched seventeen and one half miles.

[Pg. 19]

On the 19th, in the morning, I was ordered with my brigade to make it reconnaissance toward Two Run Creek. My instructions were to march due south until I struck the creek. I deployed one regiment, the 73d Ohio, and threw out skirmishers in advance. The balance of I the regiment was formed in two columns, at the right and left of the regiment deployed. In this formation the brigade advanced. When within about one half mile from the creek it was discovered that the enemy, in force, was in dangerous proximity of our left flank. Being isolated from the corps to which the brigade belonged, and not being supported on the right, by the 2d Division, and on the left by the1st Division, as it was understood we would be, and being unable to make connection with either of these divisions, although were ordered to march at the same time with our division, became necessary to withdraw the reconnaissance, and take up a position until supported by the two divisions above referred to. Accordingly, under orders from the Maj. Gen. commanding the division, I withdrew about on thousand yards from my most advanced position, and through up a slight protection of boards and rails; the enemy having shown no disposition to attack. After holding the position about two hours, it was ascertained that the1st and 2d Divisions had advanced in supporting distances at our right and left. The brigade then moved out toward the enemy in the direction of Cassville. The march was in column by company. We soon came upon the enemy, posted behind Run Creek, protected by hastily-constructed works. As the position of the enemy was such as to expose his flank, he beat a hasty retreat. To protect the artillery division which was in position on the hill to my left, I deployed the brigade on the northerly bank of the creek; which position I occupied until an advance of the whole line was made, in which this brigade took a part. Moving across the creek the brigade was formed in two lines, which one regiment in advance supporting the skirmish line; connecting with the 1st Division on the left, and with the 2d Brigade of this division on the right.

[Pg. 20]

The brigade, as a part of the General line, advanced on Cassville, then occupied by the enemy, through a dense piece of woods. Considering the nature of the ground over which it passed I regard. This advance as highly creditable to the officers and men of the brigade. After advancing to the heights north of Cassville, it was found that the enemy had retreated from that place. A battle there had been expected, and it was found that the enemy had posted his army with that view behind formidable works on the opposite heights. The day being now far spent it being after sundown pursuant to orders, I marched my brigade back to the northerly side of Two Run Creek and encamped for the night.
        On the 20th, 21st and 22d, the brigade remained in camp to rest and recover from the exhaustion of the campaign. On the 23d, the brigade marched from its camp near Cassville to Euharlee, on the south side of Etonah River, distance sixteen miles.
        On the 24th the brigade marched from Euharlee to Burnt Hickory, distance eighteen miles
        On the 25th the brigade marched from Burnt Hickory under orders to take a formation with the division on the Dallas and Marietta Road. The march of the brigade was much retarded and obstructed by McCook's Cavalry, which was ordered to march a part of the way on the same road with this brigade, but as cavalry is supposed to move with more celerity than infantry, it was expected that it would be out of the way before the road was required for infantry. At about three o'clock P. M., the brigade came upon the road leading from Burnt Hickory to Dallas, when it became known that the 2d Division (Gen. Geary) had passed on the same road and a short distance in advance had had a sharp encounter with the enemy, and that the enemy was prepared to dispute our further progress. The 20th Corps was ordered to make an attack and drive the enemy away. This brigade was first ordered to support the 1st Division (Gen. Williams) in the attack and to that end was formed in line of battle by battalion in mass, with direction to take deploying intervals as it advanced.

[Pg. 21]

Before I had advanced far, was ordered to move I my brigade to the east side of the road and move to the attack connecting with William's left. As soon as two regiments had crossed, the 5th Ohio and 136th N. Y. in the front line and the 73 Ohio and 26th Wis. in the second line. I was ordered to advance, keeping the road on my right. On communication on Maj. Gen. Butterfield the fact that the 33d Mass., forming a part of my first line, had not crossed the road, he directed me to place it behind the line reserve. As I was advancing in this position the enemy opened up musketry fire on my flank. As the fire developed a considerable force on my flank I faced the 33rd Mass. in the direction of the fire and changed the front of the 73d Ohio in the same direction and advanced in that position on the enemy. In this way I advanced under fire as long as it was light enough to see, swinging round my left so as not to lose connection with a the other regiments of the brigade.
        A deep ravine, a creek and a morass separated me from the enemy's forces that attacked my left. My left advanced to this ravine and creek and my right and center as far as 1st Division advanced. With the close of the day a rain storm and intense darkness set in, which put s stop to operations on both sides. I held the position to which we were advanced until twelve o'clock A. M. at night, when in pursuance of orders from division headquarters, I marched the brigade back on the road to the rear of the1st Division and bivouacked for the night.
        On the 27th of May, my brigade was moved to the extreme right and rear of the corps and bivouacked in column by battalion and on the 28th relieved Gen. Ward's Brigade of this division in the front line intrenched on the extreme right of the 20th A. C., where it remained until the 1st of June, 1864.
        On the 1st June this brigade was in line of battle near Hope Church behind a line of breastworks forming a second line, the first line of which was composed of the 2d Brigade of this division.

[Pg. 22]

        At twelve o'clock of that day the brigade was relieved by a brigade of the 15th Corps, Army of the Tennessee, and marched about five miles toward the left flank of the army, and encamped on the left of the 1st Division.
        At twelve o'clock on the 2d of June, the brigade broke camp and marched about two miles further to the left and bivouacked in line of battle by battalions in mass, in two lines in support of the 23d A. C., which position was occupied until three o'clock on the following day, when the brigade moved still further to the left, and bivouacked on the road leading to McLean's house in rear and support of Hovey's Brigade of the 23d A. C., in line of battle deployed in two lines.
        The brigade occupied this position until the morning of the 6th of June. When it marched on the Ackworth Road about two miles, here it formed a line of battle near Widow Hull's, with its right resting on the Sandtown Road. A strong and substantial line of breastworks extending the whole front of the brigade deployed in one line was here constructed the brigade occupied. This position unmolested until the 15th day of June.
        At two o'clock on that day the brigade broke camp and marched on the Sandtown Road in pursuit of the enemy, he having retreated from his intrenched position. After marching about a mile a line of battle was formed, this brigade forming the third line in rear of the 1st and 2d Brigades of this division. The enemy's pickets were in our front and it was ascertained that he had taken up a new position extending across the Sandtown Road on which we were marching.
        A reconnaissance was ordered to be made for the purpose of developing his line and strength. The division moved forward in line of battle, with its right resting on the Sand town Road, this brigade acting as support to the 1st Brigade as it advanced on the enemy's lines.
        The enemy was discovered in a strongly intrenched position, with a battery of artillery resting upon and covering the approach on the Sandtown Road.

[23]

        After advancing to within about one hundred  yards of the enemy's works, the brigade bivouacked for the night. This position was held until the 17th of June. On the night of the 16th of June, the enemy abandoned his position and retreated, and at nine o'clock the following day, the brigade marched in pursuit.
        The enemy was soon discovered occupying in position near Noses Creek. This brigade, and also the 1st Bridge of this division were held in reserve in rear of the new line of battle formed by the 1st Division, the 2d Brigade of this division and the third of the 2d Division with, order to march to the support of any part of the line that might be attacked. The brigade occupied this position until Sunday, the 19th of June.
        On the night of the 18th of June the enemy again retreated towards Marietta, and took up a position on, and covered by, Kenesaw Mountain.
        On the 19th of June, this brigade marched in pursuit of the enemy across Noses Creek, on the Dallas and Marietta Road, the further progress being disputed by the enemy's pickets. I formed a line of battle on right of the road, and advanced the brigade, formed in one line deployed. After encountering and pushed back a considerable distance, the enemy's skirmishers, the brigade was halted. This line was held until dark, when the brigade was withdrawn behind the 2d Brigade, about one hundred yards to the rear, where a line of breastworks had been erected. Here, the brigade went into camp and I occupied the position until the 2nd of June. On the 20th of June, at five o'clock P. M., the brigade marched out of camp, on the right of its position, to support the 1st Division, which was about taking up a position to the right of, and advance of the position then occupied by the 3d Division. The 1st division got into position without being molested by the enemy, and this brigade by order, returned to its camp.
        On the 21st of June, I received orders from Maj. Gen. Butterfield to make a reconnaissance with two regiment to the right in front of our position.

[Pg.24]
        I accordingly ordered the 136th N. Y. and 55th Ohio under the command of Lt. Col. Faulkner, to make the reconnaissance as ordered. I subsequently reinforced him with the 73d Ohio the troops left camp at eleven o'clock A. M., and returned at six o clock P. M., having accomplished the object of the reconnaissance. The enemy occupied the position on the crest of a hill about five hundred yards in our front.  I was ordered with my brigade to drive off the enemy and occupy this hill. Accordingly, on the 22d of June, I moved my brigade forward and formed a line of battle in the edge of a piece of woods, near some open ground which lay between the foot of the hill and the woods in which the brigade was formed, and about one hundred yards distant from the hill. This open ground was swept by the enemy's skirmishers. I threw out a line of skirmishers and ordered forward the 33d Mass. Vols. to support the skirmish line. In this formation the brigade advanced across the open ground in double quick, pushed up the hill which was occupied by the enemy's skirmish line, intrenched, drove the enemy from the hill, and occupied it as ordered. The enemy occupied a strong position of another hill still in our front, in which position he had intrenched himself, and from which lie kept up a galling and destructive fire on my line. With a great promptitude and dispatch, the men in the face of this fire constructed a line of breastworks which covered them from the enemy's fire. The enemy made an ineffectual attempt to dislodge us from the hill, drove in our pickets, but was quickly repulsed by the line and he retreated behind his works. At about five o'clock P M., this brigade was relieved by a brigade from the 4th A. C. After being relieved, the brigade marched to the right about two miles and took up a position in the rear in support of 1st Division.
        On the 23d of June, the division moved still further to the right to the Powder Spring Road, and took up a position in a line of battle deployed with its right resting on that road, this brigade forming a second line of which the 2d Brigade of this division formed the first.

[Pg. 25]

The brigade occupied this position till the 27th day of June. Before daylight on that day, the brigade took position in the rear of its then position on the right of Knipe's Brigade of the 1st Division, with the right resting on the Powder Spring Road. I should have said that the brigade constructed a line of breastworks covering its entire front while occupying the position which it took on the 23d.
        The brigade occupied this last position until the evening of the 29th of June, when it relieved the front line been occupied by the 2d Brigade, when it relieved the front line, which had been occupied by the 2d Brigade, but which at that time was held by the 1st brigade of this division.
        On the 29th of June, Maj Gen. Butterfield was at his own request relieved from the command of the 3d Division and Brig. Gen. Ward as senior officer succeeded to the command.
 The brigade occupied this position until the 2d July. On the night of the 1st of July, the enemy retreated from Kennesaw Mountain and Marietta toward the Chattahoochee River.
        On the morning of the 2d, this brigade marched in pursuit of the enemy on the Marietta Road and toward that place. After marching about two miles, I was ordered to change direction to the right; and to march south toward the Sandtown Road. My command came upon the enemy skirmishers, and found that he was occupying a new line of strongly intrenched works. After marching about two miles in the new direction, we encamped on the right of the 2d Division, on the west bank of Nickajack Creek, and occupied this position until the 4th day of July.
        On that day the brigade changed position to a new one about one and a half miles south. On going to this position, the enemy was supposed to be seen in our front; occupying at threatening position: thereupon, the brigade, with great rapidity and in a remarkably short space of time, constructed a line of breastworks covering it entire front. It was subsequently ascertained that the troops seen in our front were a portion of our own army advancing on the enemy's line.

[Pg. 26]
On the night of the 4th of July, the enemy again abandoned his works and retreated to the Chattahoochee River.
        On the morning of the 5th this brigade marched in pursuit of the enemy, but the advance was very slow owing to the road being blocked by troops and trains. The brigade crossed the Nickojack Creek, and went into camp, after dark on its west bank, about two miles from Chattahoochee River.
        On the 6th of July the brigade marched to a new position on the east side of Nickojack Creek, in the same relative position to the Chattahoochee River connecting with the 2d Brigade on my right and 1st Brigade on my left. Here the brigade went into camp and continued until the 17th day of July.
        At three o'clock of that day in the afternoon the brigade broke camp and commenced its march toward Chattahoochee River, crossed the river at Pace's Ferry, marched in a northeastern direction about three miles and went into camp on the right of 1st Brigade near Nancy's Creek.
        On the 18th of July we marched toward Buckhead, having first made a reconnaissance to and across Nancy's Creek, and ascertained that the enemy was not in any force at or near that creek. The brigade marched to the Dalton Road in line of battle deployed, when it changed direction to the left and continued its advance on that road. Having ascertained that the 4th A. C. occupied Buckhead, the formation of the brigade was changed from line of battle deployed, to column by companies and continued its advance in that formation. The brigade reached Buckhead at about five o'clock P. M., and went into position to the left of the Buckhead Road and south of the Decatur Road in single line of battle deployed. This position the brigade occupied until morning of the 20th of July.
        On the morning of the 20th of July, the 3d Brigade, with the division of which it forms a part, left its camp near Buckhead to cross Peach Tree Creek, the 3d Brigade in advance.

[Pg. 27]

The 2d Division (Brig. Gen. Geary) and a part or the whole of Maj. Gen. Newton's Division of the 4th A. C. had crossed the creek the day previous and taken a position on the south bank, leaving a gap between the right of Newton's Division and the left of Geary's, to be filled by the 3d Division. By order from division headquarters 3d Brigade was directed to take position on the right to connect with Gen. Geary, the 1st Brigade on the left of the 3d Brigade, and the 2d Brigade on the left of the 1st, connecting with Gen. Newton. The crossing of the creek by the division was affected about eleven o'clock A.M. of the 20th, without opposition. Upon receiving the order, I ordered Lt. Col. Faulkner to march the 136th N. Y. to the right of the positions to be occupied by the brigade, with directions to deploy a strong line of skirmishers in front of the position to be occupied by the brigade. Lt. Col. Faulkner marched with the 136th N. Y., took the position indicated and deployed four companies of his regiment as skirmishers, as directed. With the other regiments of the brigade, I was marching to occupy the position as directed by the order from division head-quarters, when I was ordered by Brig. Gen. Ward, the division commander, personally, to take position on the left of the division and connect with Gen. Newton. He gave as a reason for change in position of the brigades that Col. Cobern, the commander of the 2d Brigade, had not yet crossed the creek, and that as important that the left position should be occupied at once. Accordingly, I placed the brigade in the position indicated, deployed in line of battle. Subsequently the 2d Brigade took position on my right, the 1st Brigade on the right of the 2d, with connecting with Brig Gen. Geary. Lt. Col. Faulkner with the 136th N. Y., continued to occupy the position to which I ordered him, with his skirmishers deployed in the front of the 1st Brigade.
        On the south side of Peach Tree Creek is a place of flat or bottom land extending from Geary's left to Newton's right, and of an average width of two hundred yards, which constituted the Valley of Peach Tree Creek on the south side; from this bottom the ground rises somewhat abruptly in a bluff or ridge, more abruptly on the left than on the right.

[Pg. 28]

From the crest of this bluff or ridge the land descends to a ravine, from which another ridge rises, which ridge seemed to be continuous, extending in front of the whole division, as well as Newton's Division of the 4th Corps. As soon as the skirmishers were deployed they advanced and took possession of the front hill or ridge. Behind them, and on the flat or bottom land, the division was deployed into line of battle, in the position indicated. The first formation of the brigade was three regiments in front, viz.: the 73d Ohio, 26th Wis. and 20th Conn., in the order named from right to left the 55th Ohio in reserve. Thus formed, the brigade took position immediately in rear of and at the foot of the first bluff or ridge above alluded to, by which it was entirely covered.
        After the formation of the brigade as above stated, I was ordered to put another regiment in reserve or in the second line so that the brigade line of battle would be only two regiments front. I ordered the 73d Ohio to take a position in rear of the 26th Wis. and connect on the left with the 55th Ohio, also in reserve.  After this formation was made, orders were received to have the men stack arms and make them selves as comfortable as possible; that a further advance was not at that time contemplated. The skirmish line, however, advanced from the first ridge to the second, and took position on its crest. The brigade quietly occupied the position taken, not anticipating a conflict with the enemy. There was quite sharp firing from the skirmish line in front, which seemed to increase. I suggested to Gen. Ward that he had better advance the division to the top of the bluff. He declined, saying that he had orders from corps headquarters not to move until further orders, and he should stay where he was until he received orders to move. At about three o'clock P. M., a private from the skirmish line came to me and notified me that the enemy in force was advancing upon us. The rapid discharge of musketry on our left, in front of Newton's Division, the sudden retreat to the rear of non-combatants ambulances, etc., of that division, the activity of or own skirmish line, indicated that the announcement was true.

[Pg. 29]

I immediately, without orders, ordered my brigade to advance to meet and resist the threatened attack of the enemy. The skirmish line gallantly held out to the last, and bravely fought the enemy and materially checking his advance.
        The other brigades of the division moved forward at about the same time. Over the crest of the hill, down into the ravine on the other side the brigade line advanced it, emerged from a fringe of trees or bushes with which the bottom of the valley or ravine lined, it met the enemy.
Coolly and deliberately the men poured into their well directed, withering and destructive fire, which covered the ground with dead and wounded.
        This checked his advance and cause  to recoil. The line continuing its fire charged up the hill, gained the crest, and drove the enemy in to the valley on the other side. The 20th Conn. on the left, by some misapprehension, halted before reaching the crest of the second hill, its commander being erroneously ordered to halt and cease firing, as our skirmishers were still in front. This misapprehension and error I at once rectified, and the regiment advanced to the crest, just as a body of the enemy formed in double column were about to take advantage of the apparent gap in the line to attack Newton's Division on its right flank. A well directed and murderous volley from the 20th Conn. poured into this column, threw it into confusion and it broke and fled.
        As there seemed to be some indication that that the troops of the 4th Corps on our immediate left, were driven by the enemy. I held the 55th Ohio and 73d Ohio, in reserve, to protect my left flank in case it should be exposed. Happily, Maj. Gen. Thomas happened to be on at part of the field and seeing the confusion in Gen. Newton's command, ordered an Ohio battery of artillery into a favorable position to reach the enemy. This battery opened a destructive fire on flank checked his advance and enabled the brigade on my left to hold its ground, and repel the attack.

[Pg. 30]

As soon as I became satisfied that my flank would not be turned, I ordered forward the 73d Ohio to relieve the 26th Wis., which was nearly exhausted by the extreme heat of the day and the severe fighting in which it had been engaged. The men had expended all their ammunition and supplied themselves from the cartridge boxes of the dead and wounded rebels. On being relieved the regiment fell back about fifty yards to the rear, where it took position in line of battle ready to spring to their guns in case of necessity. I ordered the 55th Ohio to reinforce the line on the left, as there was a gap on the left of the 20th Conn., between it and the right of the 4th Corps. The commanding officer of the 55th Ohio very properly and judiciously, with his regiment filled that gap. I withdrew the 136th N. Y. from the right of division, and with it relieved the 20th Conn. in the front line, putting that regiment in reserve. On the top of the ridge, now occupied by the brigade line of battle, was a well traveled highway, on the south side of which was an ordinary fence of rails partly standing and partly thrown down. The men took position behind this fence, and kept a constant and continuous fire upon the enemy.
        The enemy made one or two ineffectual attempts to renew the attack, but his troops would not or could not withstand the destructive fire which ours kept up upon them from our line. He gave up the contest and retreated behind his strong and well-protected line of earthworks. This ended this severely contested engagement. To its it was a brilliant feat of arms. We encountered the enemy in superior numbers, in the open field. We met his offensive attack with an offensive return; his charge with a countercharge. The victory was complete and decisive. He left his dead and wounded on the field, and in our possession. The 26th Wis. captured a stand of colors, and the skirmishers of the 136th N. Y., a battle flag. The skirmishers from this regiment deployed in front of the 1st Brigade, continued to act as such while the engagement lasted. They gallantly held the advancing line of the rebels in check until the 1st Brigade advanced to the line held by them.

[Pg. 31]

The coolness they displayed and the bravery they exhibited when under fire was worthy of the highest praise and reflected on the gallant regiment of which they were members. This brigade buried the bodies of one hundred and thirty eight dead rebels found behind and near our advanced line of battle, among was one colonel (Drake of the 33d Miss.) and five line officers. The severely and mortally wounded were scattered over the ground on and were moved and cared for by our surgeons. Six swords and many stands of small arms of which no account was kept denote the captures made by this brigade of this division.
        Of course such a victory could not be obtained without the sacrifice of valuable lives, and the shed of precious blood, although our loss is slight in comparison with the loss and havoc that were inflicted on the rebels. The men and officers of the brigade sustained their well-earned reputation for bravery and gallantry.
        Though the attack came upon them unexpectedly, they met it with cool determination and unflinching courage.  Where all behaved well it may be regarded as invidious to call attention to individuals, yet it seem to me that I can not discharge my whole duty in this respect without pointing out for special commendation, the conduct of the 26th Wis. and its brave and able commander, Major Winkler. The position of this regiment in the line was such that the brunt of the attack on this brigade fell upon it.
        The brave, skillful and determined manner in which it met this attack, rolled back the onset, pressed forward in a counter-charge an drove back the enemy could not be excelled by the troops in this or any other army, and it is worthy of the biggest commendation and praise. It is to be hoped that such conduct will be held up as an example for others and will meet its appropriate reward.
        On the 21st of July, the brigade held the ground and position occupied by it at the close of the battle of the 20th.

[Pg. 32]

On the night of that day the enemy retreated and withdrew behind their works, which covered and protected the city of Atlanta.
        On the morning of the 22d this brigade again marched in pursuit of the enemy and advanced within two miles of the center of the city of Atlanta. Here the brigade went into position in line of battle deployed in two lines on the right of and connecting with the 2d Division on our right and constructed a line of breastworks covering its entire front.
        The enemy opened upon us with his artillery from forts and works in Atlanta, but did no damage.
        On the 23d I was ordered to take a position on the right of the 1st Division for the purpose of strengthening and reinforcing the brigade that held the Marietta Road and the railroad.
        Accordingly I marched my brigade to the position designated, relieved that part of Ruger's Brigade of 1st Division that held the line between the Marietta Road and the railroad, and held and occupied that part of the line with my brigade, deployed in line of battle in two lines protected by breastworks and by abattis and other obstructions in the front.
        On the 24th day of July General Hooker at his own request was relieved from the command of the 20th Army Corps and General Slocum was assigned to the command.
        On the 24th of July I changed the line by throwing the left forward about eighty yards so as to make the front line a straight line, and constructed a new line of breastworks extending from the left of the right regiment, to the left of the line. This work was constructed during the night of Saturday, the 23d, and occupied by the troops at daylight the next morning. The brigade occupied this position until the 30th of July, the only change being that on the evening of the 26th of July. This brigade was relieved from the front line by Ruger's Brigade of 1st Division and took a position on the second line covered and protected my breastworks.
        On the 30th of July the brigade was ordered to march to the right and support in connection with the division, Davis' Division of the 14th Corps - in a reconnaissance toward East Point.

[Pg. 33]

Accordingly the brigade marched to the right flank of the army and took up a position on the right of the15th Corps. The brigade continued on the right of the army until the 2d of August, when it returned and took position in line of battle on the right of the 2d Brigade of the division, and connecting with the 16th Corps on the right, the position lately occupied by the 14th Corps. Here the brigade constructed a line of breastworks, covering its entire front, of a sufficient strength to resist the artillery. This position was held until the morning of the 8th of August.
        On the 7th of August, I received orders line and fortify it. This created necessity new line of works, except the works in front of one regiment. On the left a brigade of the 14th Corps, occupying a position in reserve of this brigade, was ordered to assist in constructing these works. The works were contracted on the night of the 7th and were occupied by the brigade on the morning of the 8th. On Tuesday, the 9th, the right regiment of my brigade was relieved on the front line by a regiment of a brigade from the 14th Corps, above alluded to. The regiment so relieved was held in reserve. The 16th Corps having advanced their line, I was ordered to advance by a detail of the three brigades of the division.
        The works were so far completed that on the evening of the 10th, I moved the brigade into the new line, and the works were completed by the regiment, which lay behind them. This position was occupied by the brigade, one regiment in reserve, until the 13th of August. On the 11th of August, I received an order still further to advance my line to connect on the left with the 2d Brigade, which also took an advanced position, and to construct a new line of breastworks to cover this advance. Accordingly, working parties were parties were detailed, the work was constructed in the night as ordered, and the brigade moved into the new line, on the morning of the 13th. This new position was occupied by the brigade until the evening of the 25th of August. From the time of arrival in front of Atlanta, the troops were under fire from artillery.

[Pg. 34]

On the evening of the 24th, orders were received that this brigade and the 2d Brigade of this division would march on the evening of the 25th to Turner's Ferry on the Chattahoochee, to hold and cover the ferry pending the contemplated movement of the army to the right and rear of Atlanta, with the view of cutting the Macon Railroad, on which the enemy relied for the transportation of his supplies. I was also ordered to send one regiment to Turner's Ferry, on the morning of the 25th, to construct a line of breastworks to protect the brigade when it should take possession there. Accordingly on the morning of the 25th, the 20th Conn. was dispatched to Turner's Ferry for the purpose indicated, with instructions to comply with the order. At eight o'clock P. M., of the 25th, the brigade was withdrawn from behind the line of works, marched across Proctor's Creek on the Turner's Ferry Road, where it was massed and halted to await the movement of a certain part of the 4th Corps. At two o'clock A. M., of the 26th, the brigade resumed its march toward Turner's Ferry, at which point it arrived at five o'clock, A. M., went into position in line of battle, deployed in single line on the left of 2d Brigade, its right resting on the Turner's Ferry Road and its left on the Chattahoochee River.
        As soon as it was in position the brigade commenced vigorous work to construct the line of defenses, by throwing up breastworks, making abattis, cutting down trees for obstructions, and planting other obstacles to the approach of the enemy.
        On the 27th day of August, and before the defenses were fully completed, the enemy made a demonstration upon us by a force consisting of two brigades of infantry and a battery of four pieces of artillery under Brig. Gen. French. He opened upon us a very rapid discharge of artillery, drove in our pickets by an attack of his infantry, but as soon as he discovered the strength of our position, and received one or two rounds from a section of a battery behind our works, within range of which he had planted his artillery, he discontinued his attack and retreated from our position.

[Pg. 35]

Our casualties were two men killed, one wounded and two missing. This position was held without further molestation from the enemy, until the 2d of September.
        On the morning of the 2d of September a detachment of four hundred men was sent from this brigade to join a similar detachment from the 2d Brigade for the purpose of making a reconnaissance toward Atlanta. This reconnaissance was made, and it was ascertained that the enemy, on the night of the 1st of September, after destroying his ordnance stores and other store then in the city and retreated southward. The city was formally surrendered by the mayor and common council, and taken possession of by the troops composing the reconnoitering party. That portion of the brigade which formed the detachment detailed for the reconnaissance did not return to Turner's Ferry, but was held in the city for its protection. I was ordered to take the balance of my brigade and join that portion of it already in the city. On the 4th of September, I moved my headquarters to the city of Atlanta, and the balance of the brigade with brigade train marched into the city, joined that portion already there and took a position in the south part there of behind the works built and abandoned by the rebels.
        This brigade left Lookout Valley on the 2d day of May, 1864, numbering nineteen hundred officers and men. During the latter part of May, the 20th Conn. joined the brigade with four hundred men. The casualty reports have been forwarded monthly, and show a loss during the campaign.

in killed,           8 officers, 157 enlisted men.
in wounded,    34    "         717     "
in missing,        1    "           24     "
                            Total       941

        This ends the campaign of Atlanta, commencing, so far as this brigade is concerned, on the 2d of May last, and ending with the occupation of Atlanta, as here instated; a campaign as difficult and arduous as it has been successful and triumphant. During its continuance this brigade has been actively and almost uninterruptedly engaged either constructing defenses, in hard marches, severe skirmishes terrific battles or in the trenches, and in line of battle, watching a cautious and vigilant enemy.

[Pg. 36]

It has shrunk from no duty and avoided no danger. Its promptness, its discipline, its bravery and its efficiency have at all times and under all circumstances been conspicuous. Its conduct has been such as to warrant me in adding that I feel proud of my command.
        My thanks are due and are hereby most heartily tendered to every individual officer and man of which it is composed, for the cheerfulness alacrity and zeal with which every order I have given has been obeyed, and for the apparent confidence which has been reposed in me. I cannot express in too strong terms the commendation to which, in my judgment, the entire command is entitled. It has fairly won, and I trust will promptly receive, the commendation and gratitude of the government it has been fighting to uphold, and of the people whose liberties it has endeavored to maintain and secure. Its depleted ranks, its maimed and disabled members, the graves of its killed, found on almost every rood of ground between Dalton and Atlanta, all proclaim in silent but emphatic and eloquent language, not only the indomitable courage and gallantry which have characterized its operations, but the immense costs and sacrifice with which our successes have been obtained.  Peace to the brave! the honored dead! May their names be revered and their patriotism and courage remembered by a generous government and a grateful people, and may their afflicted families and mourning children reap the just reward of their labors.
        I cannot close this, my final report of the operations of my brigade in the campaign of Atlanta, without giving renewed expression to the thanks which I deem to be due to the officers of my staff, for their kindness and gentlemanly conduct as members of my military family, for the alacrity, zeal and dispatch with which they have promulgated my orders, for the energy and ability with which they have discharged their specific duties, for the bravery and gallantry which they have displayed on every battle field, and in the danger and for the constant efforts they have made to relieve me of the labors, and to lighten the responsibilities which my official position imposed on me.

[Pg. 37]

I can only again recommend them as well as those officers I have particularly mentioned in my report of specific battles, to the attention and consideration of those whose duty and business it is to point out the worthy and the meritorious, when the jewels are made up and the rewards of merit distributed.
        I am, Captain, very respectfully your obedient servant,

                                                                                JAMES WOOD, Jr.
                                                                                    Col. Commanding
                                                                                            3d Brig., 3d Div., XX. C.
Captain Robert E. Beecher,
                                                                                      A. A. A. G.

[Pg. 39]

APPENDIX A.
_____________

        Before I had any experience in the operations of war, I had read that no subordinate commander, officer or private in a large army, could give any correct amount or report of a battle in which he took part. All each one could do was, to describe all he saw and did, and if a subordinate commander of his own command. My own experience in the battles of the war of the rebellion, in which I took part, confirms what I had read.
        The report of the operations of my brigade at Resaca describes what took place under my own observations. I endeavored to carry out the orders as finally delivered to me from division headquarters. I could not see, and could not observe the operations of the other brigades of the division in operations of the corps. During the night after the battle, the enemy retreated and the brigade I commanded marched, with the rest of the corps, in pursuit. I received no account of the operations of the other two brigades, nor did I ever have any information on the subject until the publication of the "Life of Ben Harrison," by Lew Wallace, in August, 1888, during the pendency of that year. This called my attention to the subject and gave me, for the first time, information of the operations of the other two brigades of the division. My attention thus being called to the subject, I looked up my own report of the part by my brigade in the battle. At the opening of the attack, Gen. (then Col.) Harrison was in command of the 70th Ind. Regiment according to the "Life," he was in command of the 1st Brigade, Gen. Ward being disabled by a gun shot wound. It is due to the truth of history, that all those who took part of the stupendous war of the rebellion should, when opportunity occurs, relate what he himself saw and did, and correct the mistakes of others, whether intentionally, or inadvertently made.

[Pg. 40]

Though the history of Col. Harrison's connection with the Atlanta campaign, was written by Gen. Lew Wallace, it is fair to presume it was written from information derived from Gen. Harrison himself. He gives his recollection of the operations of the troops under his command, and the part he took in it himself. It is not doubted that Col. Harrison and his men displayed the bravery and gallant conduct which the "Life" ascribes to them. The "Life" says that not in aptly it has been said that the engagement which ensued was really two battles instead of one. We shall confine ourselves, altogether to that of Gen. Ward, and yet the author concludes his account of the battle, by saying, Wood's assault of the other height had been equally brave and unsuccessful. In saying that Wood's assault "was equally unsuccessful," the author is mistaken. On the contrary, the assault was successful. The 3d Brigade took the heights I was ordered to assault, drove the enemy from the rifle-pits, or breastworks, they had constructed, and held the position. After reading this account of the assault in the "Life," I can understand why the enemy made such desperate efforts to drive me off, as my report shows. I did not know at the time that the 1st Brigade had retreated to the foot of the hill, leaving my brigade unsupported on the top. I understood at the time, the men of the 2d Brigade did open fire on the troops in front of them, for the fire reached the 26th Wis., my right regiment, and threw it into such confusion that it was obliged to withdraw from the line and re-form.
        In his report of the battle (on file in the War Department), Gen. Ward says: "I formed as directed, about one mile from the enemy's works, about twelve o'clock. I was then ordered to charge. My command moved forward in fine order through the thick woods. After moving forward about two hundred yards, the column debouched into an open field. I immediately gave the order 'double quick.' It was obeyed promptly. The men moving steadily, rapidly, carried a lunette beyond the field, in a dense wood, on a commanding position.
When we came to the open field the first regiment (70th Ind.) and the second (79th Ohio) took the double-quick sooner than did the third (102d Ill.) the fourth (105th Ill.) and the fifth (129th Ill.). This made a gap in the column. I turned back and ordered those behind to close up on the double-quick. At that time, a battery on the right, and that in front were pouring shell and canister into the column.

[Pg. 41]

The musketry from the rebel lines was also very heavy, and doing great execution; yet the column move forward in pretty good order. Two of my regimental flags were placed on the works owing to some mistake in the transmission of orders a portion of my command fell back. When I reached a point of high ground, between the captured lunette and the enemy's breastworks, I found about four hundred of my men. Col. Gilbert of the 19th Mich. I came up at this time with his regiment. I ordered him to form with my men. He executed the order promptly. All this time the enemy was firing upon us. We returned the fire as soon as the men were formed. I ordered them to move toward the breastworks, and to continue the fire. The whole line of works opened a heavy fire, which threw the men into some confusion, and many, in spite of all could do, fell back and retreated. Those who remained I ordered to take trees and lie down and crawl up to the works, saying we could carry them, and I would lead. They moved on until we got within about fifteen paces of the works, when I was shot. I then ordered them to hold their places under cover, as much as possible. I was shot through the left arm. I went to the foot of the hill to have my wound dressed.  The slight movement caused by my starting, seemed to arouse the enemy (they had been quiet for some time) and he opened upon me and my entire line, driving my men and forcing them to retreat in double-quick time. I could only follow their retreating steps to the foot of the hill, where I found a surgeon and had my wound dressed. On reaching the bottom, I found some one hundred men of my command. I ordered them forward to aid their comrades, who were already in or near to the works. They quickly and prompted started; but as they reached the road covered by the enemy's battery our right, they were thrown into confusion by the shells, and it was impossible to rally and re-form at that point. This was between four and five o'clock in the afternoon. At the foot of the hill I found that portion of my brigade which had fallen back, formed and ready to re-assault the enemy. I sent my aid, Lieut. Harrington, to Gen. Butterfield for permission to assault works again. This he refused to give.
        "But for a fire in the rear (by mistake), I am satisfied that we would not only have succeeded in carrying the battery, but should also have carried the breastworks."

[Pg. 42]

        There seems to be a discrepancy between the account of the operations of the 1st Brigade as contained in the "Life," and in Gen. Ward's report. As to the fire in the rear, Gen. Ward simply refers to the fact without indicating from whence the fire came. The "Life" says the fire in the rear of the 1st Brigade came from the 2d Brigade. This is correct. Both Gen. Ward's report and the account of the battle in the "Life," attribute the unsuccessful assault and retreat of the 1st Brigade to this "fire in the rear." This was probably the case; as nothing is so demoralizing and discouraging to troops in action, as a fire in the rear.
        According to Gen. Ward's report, he did not leave the field or surrender command of his brigade although wounded by a shot through his left arm. And I remember that it was so said immediately after the battle. But there is this to be said in favor of Gen. Harrison and his account of the battle as contained in the "Life," as between him and Gen. Ward, when they differ; he could describe his own actions and the operations of his regiment more fully and correctly than Gen. Ward could, who had the whole of his brigade to look after.
 Immediately after the battle, I received from Gen. Butterfield the following complimentary note:

                                                                            HEAD-QUARTERS 3D BUTTERFIELD DIV., 20TH CORPS.
Col. WOOD Commanding Brig.:
        Dear Col.: You have renewed my pride and confidence in your command and yourself. The division as a whole has made a proud record. Those who witnessed your charge on the first hill speak in high terms of it. Get every thing in hand; encourage all. Be ready for any thing tomorrow.
                                                                Very truly your friend
                                                                            DANL. BUTTERFIELD

        Subsequently Gen. Butterfield forwarded to the War Department the following recommendation which was approved by Gen. Hooker:

                                                                            HEADQUARTERS 3D DIV 20TH CORPS.
                                                                            NEAR MARIETTA, GEO., June 27, 1864.
To the Hon. Secretary of War:
        I earnestly recommend for promotion Col. James Wood Jr., 136th N. Y. V. I., to be a Brig. General of Volunteers, for gallantry and good conduct in the engagements of Resaca, Dallas or New Hope Church, Cassville and Gilgal, or Hard Shell Church.
        The colonel has been a long time in command of a brigade and has fairly earned the promotion.
                                                                I am very respectfully, your obt. Servt.,
                                                                            DANL. BUTTERFIELD,
                                                                                  Maj. Gen. Com'd'g.

_________

APPENDIX B.

        In my report, I have given an account of the operations of my brigade in the battle of Peach Tree Creek. My recollection of what occurred at that battle, so far as my brigade was concerned, is distinct. It was a fearful battle, and the 3d Division was very nearly taken by surprise. Gen. Ward notified me that Gen. Hooker had ordered him to put his men in position at the bluff, and have the men rest until further orders. Gen. Ward took position in rear of my brigade. I was in conversation with him when the active skirmish fire commenced. I told him I thought it indicated an advance of the enemy, and my line should be advanced. He said Gen. Hooker's orders were for him to remain in the bottom where he was until further orders. I said in view of the sharp skirmish firing, should no longer stay at the foot of the bluff. I immediate repaired to command and ordered an advance. Capt. Tibbett's, of Gen. Ward's staff, accompanied me. I advanced my brigade without orders.      As I was proceeding from Ward's head-quarters to my own, and office, or private from the skirmish line came back and told me the enemy were advancing in force. My command promptly moved to the top of the hill and came in contact with the enemy as stated in my report. The "Life" contains the following, p. 219:
        "While the struggle was yet pending and in it's full furry, Coburn with his command passed up the hill, and entering the engagement covered Harrison's exposed flank, and engaged enemy along his whole front; then riding to Wood, who was standing at a halt, suggested that he too advance up the hill. Wood replied that his orders were to stay where he was. But seeing the necessity, he promptly gave the order, and imitating the rush of the other brigades, left no cause of complaint against them."

[Pg. 44]

        I don't know why it was necessary, in order to show that Gen. Harrison was a brave man and able officer, to cast reflection on me and represent that I did not appreciate the situation, and was not prompt in moving on the enemy. Coburn could not have ridden to me, for neither he nor any of the officers of the division were on horseback during the fight. I advanced my brigade as soon as the skirmish firing indicated there was danger ahead. None of the brigade commanders received orders to advance in consequence of the order received from Gen. Hooker until after my brigade commenced the movement. All were impressed with the necessity of advancing. I was told by one of Gen. Hooker's staff that the 3d Brigade was the first to commence the movement, but the three brigades reached the top of the bluff about the same time. After I reached the top and after the brigade was in conflict with the enemy, Col. Coburn came to me in an excited state of mind and said something in reference to the state of affairs, but I do not remember what he said and that was the first I saw of him. I did not see him on the flats or before my brigade moved to the top of the bluff.
        I quote also the following from the "Life," page 219:
        "It happened that when the attack developed he (Gen. Harrison) had near one hundred men from a New York regiment in his front detailed to help the skirmishers. They were specially selected because armed with Spencer repeating-rifles. Time to return them to their command proper, was too short. He cast about to make them useful, and seeing the old mill, ordered them into it. They did excellent service there in aiding to hold the Confederates upon the brow of the hill while the brigades were rushing upward. Harrison says they held them as stiff as ever he saw.
        These skirmishers were from the 136th N. Y. Regiment. They did not have Spencer repeating rifles, but U. S. Springfield rifles. They were not ordered to, nor did they go, into an old mill. They did hold the rebels "stiff" but it was by fighting in the open field. Reference to my report will show how it happened that the 136th N. Y. was separated from the brigade to which it belonged. The men of the 136th N. Y. all wore white felt hats which made them somewhat conspicuous in the line.

[Pg. 45]

Their coolness and bravery - the stiffness with which they held the rebel line, the intrepidity with which they kept the front and joined in the fight and when the 1st Brigade line reached them, attracted the attention and received the warm commendation of Gen. Hooker.
 I have obtained the following statements from the officers of the 136th N. Y. engaged in that skirmish line, which confirms my report and recollection.

STATEMENT OF CAPTAIN CHAPIN OF CO. C.

        After the 136th N. Y. had taken position on the right of the division and on the left of Gen. Geary, Lt. Col. Faulkner ordered me to take Cos. A, C, D and G and deploy as skirmishers in the interval between the 2d Brigade and the left of Geary's Division. Our objective point was the second ridge; the first was not as high as the second. To the right and in front of Geary's was a small creek running to his left and breaking the second ridge so that the ridge we were to occupy was in advance of and to the left of Geary's line, about two hundred yards, and down in this hollow on this little creek was the mill. This ridge to the right of where we were to go, was already occupied by the rebel skirmishers. When all was ready we commenced the advanced and did not stop until the ridge was gained, driving the enemy's skirmishers before us. The right of my line was to connect with Geary's; but we were in advance of the mill. On this ridge was an old sunk road which answered very well for rifle pits. At about the center of my line, there was a turn in the road following down the hill and past the old mill. My line on the right was in advance of this road about thirty yards. None of the skirmishers occupied the mill at any time. For some time after we gained the ridge there was kept up a scattering skirmish fire, in which several of my men were wounded. After a while the firing ceased and all was quiet.  Some of the men were lying down - others were picking blackberries - but all were on the alert. Word was brought to me by Lieut. Smith of Co. G that the enemy were moving to our left. In front of the center of my left was a thinly wooded belt of timber, but to the right was more dense and a wider space was cleared in front of Geary, a field of about twenty acres. On being notified by Lieut. Smith I went to the brow of the hill and reconnoitered the situation, immediately sent word to Col. Faulkner of the situation, and that if we were to hold the position reinforcements should be sent forward at once.

[Pg. 46]

At this time the 1st Brigade was not in position in our rear, I saw the rebel line of attack advancing by company front - muskets "right shoulder shift." My whole thought was to hold that ridge at all hazards. I ran along the line, told the men we must hold the ridge at all hazards - not to waste any powder, but to make every shot tell. Every man seemed to realize the situation. They loaded and fired with as much coolness and precision as though they were practicing on parade. I felt proud of my command. At this time, the 1st Brigade had commenced its movement, but had not yet reached the foot of the ridge. I shouted to them to hurry up if they wanted to save the ridge. About the time they reached the base of the ridge, a section of Geary's Battery, which was on a considerable higher elevation than the ridge, we occupied changed the direction of its fire to a left oblique, bringing my men in the range of his guns. I immediately ordered my men to fall back out of range, which they did in good order, meeting the line of the 1st Brigade my skirmishers, advanced on the enemy in front of the 1st Brigade line to the top of the hill. We charged the rebel line and pushed it back. A rebel flag was captured by Private Dennis Buckley. He was killed while holding the flag aloft. The rebels made an ineffectual attempt to retake the flag, the rebels came over the brow of the hill and nearly if not quite half way down before they recoiled. Every shot from our line seemed to take effect the rebels, being above us, their balls flew over our heads, and when we gained the summit there were more dead and wounded rebels in our rear than in our front. We held the position until the rebels retreated behind their fortified position, when we were ordered to join our regiment. We retired from the front, bringing back our dead and wounded with the flag we had captured. The regiment joined the brigade, to which it belonged and relieved the 20th Conn. in the front line of the brigade, ready to meet any further attack the rebels might see fit to deliver. In an old letter among my war papers - written home a day or two after the battle - I find the following Col. Wood, although commanding a brigade, it is reported that he really was the leader in the movement of the entire division in the advance and charge on the enemy at the battle.

                                                                            W. S. CHAPIN,
                                                                                  Late Capt. Co. C.

[Pg. 47]

STATEMENT OF SERGEANT J. B. BENEDICT OF CO. G.

        Lt. Col. Faulkner detailed four companies under Capt. Chapin, to deploy as skirmishers Company G., was on the left and was left guide. Of the company, and that brought me on the left of the skirmish line. As soon as the skirmish line was deployed, we advanced, driving the rebel skirmishers over the hill, and took back possession on top of the hill behind highway fence. We first discovered the rebels advancing about one o'clock P. M. Sending word back to the regiment, we prepared to give them a warm reception. As soon as they were in reach of our guns, we opened upon them, and maintained a steady fire until they were up to the other side of the fence. At this point, one of Geary's Batteries on our right, opened fire on the rebels. Some of their shot coming rather close to us for comfort (in fact one of the men had his gun knocked out of his hands by a missile from this battery) our line of skirmishers was compelled to fall back six or eight rods to get out of range. This was done in good order, maintaining our position and keeping up a steady fire, halting at this point for the line of battle to come up with us. The rebels had taken advantage of the gap in our line of skirmishers on our left and under cover of some small brush, was swinging around our left flank. A volley from the advancing brigade line checked them. When the line of battle go up to us, we advanced in front of the line to the top of the hill, where the rebels were, when their line commenced to break. At this point a rebel color bearer was shot, falling forward to us, his flag falling in the same direction. On this, Dennis Buckley, of Company G, sprang forward a few steps, picked up the flag and began stepping backward, at the same time waving the flag at the rebels. When within a few steps of our skirmishers, a bullet from the rebels struck the flag staff, glanced and stuck Buckley in the forehead, killing him instantly. The captured flag was seized by Lieut. Smith, and retained by the men of the skirmish line, as a part of the soils of battle. Several prisoners were taken by the skirmish line. I sent three rebel prisoners to the rear. The old mill spoken of was at the right of Company G. It was in plain view, and I saw no one in side of it at any time. I know that Company G., maintained their position as skirmishers until the rebels were repulsed and retreated. Then the skirmishers were ordered to join the regiment, and the regiment marched to the brigade of which it formed a part and was put in the front line of that brigade.

                                                                            J. B. BENEDICT
                                                                                  Late Sergt. Co. G.

[Pg. 48]

        I may add that a year or more after the war closed, I received from the War Department a medal to be delivered to the mother of Buckley, as a memento of the bravery of her son at the battle of Peach Tree Creek, and the capture by him of the flag from the rebels.
        It will be remembered that during Cleveland's administration, an order was made directing the flags captured during the war to be returned to the States from whose troops they were captured, which order created widespread astonishment and indignation among the surviving soldiers of the Union army. A list of captured flags, and by whom captured, was published at that time and at the end of the list was this flag, captured by Private BUCKLEY of the 136th N. Y. Regiment, at the battle of Peach Tree Creek.

[Pg. 49]

DEDICATION

OF THE MONUMENT TO THE 136TH REG., N. Y. VOL.
INF., AT GETTYSBURG.
_________

        Perhaps the most notable event in the history of the 136th Reg., N. Y. Vol. since the war, was the dedication, on Tuesday, the 16th of October, 1888, of a beautiful an appropriate monument on the world renowned battlefield of Gettysburg. The State of New York has generously appropriated the sum of $1,500 to each regiment and battery of State troops that participated in the battle, for the purpose of erecting a monument at Gettysburg marking the regiments position on the field and commemorating its participation in the great three days contest that witnessed the turning point in the fortunes the rebellion. The labor of cutting and lettering is all done by competent workmen under the direction of a commission of officers of the Union army appointed by the Legislature, the survivors of the regiment dictating the design of the monument and designating the place for its erection. On the evening of the 15th, officers and members of the regiment to the number of about sixty, came together at Elmira and accompanied by the Peoria brass band of sixteen pieces, proceeded on the night train to Gettysburg, reaching the village at about ten o'clock on the morning of the 16th.
        Forming in procession at the depot, the veterans marched through the town and out on the Taney town road about one mile south of the village where the monument stands, just over the stone wall at the right of the road where the regiment was station during the three days of the battle. To the left of the road is the National Cemetery, high and commanding ground, and occupied by several Union batteries during the fight. Comrade C. H. Miner, president of the association, called the veterans to order, and the monument was unveiled by General Wood, colonel of the regiment at the time of the battle.

[Pg. 50]

After an impressive prayer by clergyman Rev J. K. Denman, pastor of the Presbyterian Church in Gettysburg, General Wood gave a graphic and thrilling history of the regiment, recounting its many achievements during its two and a half years of active and honorable service, dwelling with just pride and satisfaction upon a career of untarnished bearing and energetic service, with a record for gallantry courage and intrepidity which could successfully challenge that of any other regiment in the army. At the close of his address, General Wood transferred the monument to the regimental association, and President Miner, in an eloquent and feeling response, accepted the same. The address of I. Sam. Johnson, which followed, was a glowing tribute of praise, both to the living and the dead of the regiment, a portion of the survivors of which were gathered there to commemorate the most notable event in its history.
        It was truly an impressive scene, and many eyes were dim with tears as they listened to their former commander; and their memories went back to the thrilling scenes of those July days, twenty five years ago, when the hallowed ground whereon they stood received its baptism of patriotic blood. The exercises were concluded by the singing of a patriotic hymn, a dirge by the band and the benediction; after which the group of survivors and the monument were photographed, and then the procession, re-formed and marched back to head-quarters at the Eagle hotel.
        After dinner the company took carriages and were driven over the second and third day's line of battle, extending from Culp's Hill on the right, to Little Round Top, on the left, a distance of about four miles. The rebel line of battle, outside and facing the Union line, was over six miles in length. Colonel Long, a member of the Gettysburg Memorial Association, accompanied the party, and gave a graphic and detailed account of the second and third day's fighting as it occurred at different points of the field. The struggle at Culp's Hill on the right, the charge of the Louisiana Tigers upon Cemetery Hill, the gallant fighting of Sickles' Corps in advance of the Union line on the second day, the desperate struggle of the enemy to gain possession of Little Round Top, and lastly, the repulse of Pickett's terrible charge upon the center of the Union lines, were described from positions where the fighting actually occurred; and it was intensely interesting to those who participated in the battle, while to those who had never visited Gettysburg battle-field before, it was almost a revelation.

[Pg. 51]

        In the evening the business meeting of the regiment was held in the village hall. Capt. Kidder, M. Scott, of Geneseo, was elected president and Maj. J Bailey of Dansville, re-elected secretary and treasurer, and the next was appointed at Geneseo, on the 2d of September next. Capt. Kidder, M. Scott and Gen. L. B. Faulkner, of Dansville, made eloquent and patriotic speeches which were well received and generously applauded. The latter's characterization of the order directing the return of the rebel flags was greeted with a storm of applause. Short speeches were made by Gen. Wood, I. Sam. Johnson, J. S. Galentine and others, and the meeting adjourned; every one concurring in the opinion that it had been a glorious reunion.
        The next morning, the company took carriages again and visited the first day's battle-field, on Seminary Ridge, to the west and north of the village. Here occurred the death of Gen. Reynolds, commander of the 1st Corps; a massive granite monument marking the place where he fell. In this part of the field is also placed the monument of the 104th Regiment, N. Y., Vol. or Wadsworth's Guards, indicating the position of the regiment in the first day's fight.
        Returning to the village, the remainder of the day was given up to individual research after relics, old landmarks, picket lines, and comrade's graves. It was a re-union to the living and the dead.
The battlefield of Gettysburg is destined to become a National Mecca. In a few years hundreds of monuments will attest to the sacredness of the place, and the "wondrous story" will be written in granite and marble and bronze; and many succeeding generations of freemen will here find renewed inspiration of patriotism and loyalty; and pledges and vows will here be made to preserve and perpetuate the Union whose broken columns were here restored and consecrated by the blood of the patriotic ancestry.

[Pg. 52]

ADDRESS BY GEN. JAMES WOOD

        COMRADES: Let us rejoice that we see. This day Let us thank Almighty God our Heavenly Father, that under this protecting eagis we passed safely through the fatigues and dangers of a destructive war; that He has preserved our lives through the years that have followed and shielded us from "the pestilence that walketh in darkness and the destruction that wasteth at noonday;" that we are permitted to assemble on this battle-field, where was fought a terrific and sanguinary battle, the fame of which has extended throughout the world - a battle which exerted a momentous influence on the destiny of this nation - to dedicate this appropriate monument to the memory of the living and the dead of our own 136th N. Y. Regiment, a regiment which took an active and honorable part in this battle. Our thanks and gratitude are due, and are here fitly acknowledged to the State of which we have the honor to be citizens, proudly designated the Empire State in this great and glorious Union for providing means for the erection of. This monument, on the ground held and defended by the regiment through the battle in which it fought and bled; to keep in lasting remembrance, the valiant and meritorious services here rendered; to the Legislature, through whose instrumentality the necessary money was raised and appropriated; and to the patriotic men who proposed, and by their influence and exertions, induced the Legislature to take favorable action to effectuate the purpose advocated by them; and to the commissioners appointed by the Legislature from among those who had held high office in the volunteer army of the United States, from our own State, to carry out the legislative purpose, for the skill, ability and zeal which they have voluntarily devoted to the purpose, for which they were appointed, and to whose active exertions we are largely indebted for the appropriate and artistic monument, which we now dedicate.
        This monument does not alone represent the magnanimity which the State of New York has exhibited, to keep in lasting remembrance her sons, the honored dead who fell on the battle-field of Gettysburg. The records of her Legislature show that it appropriated $20,000 to the "Gettysburg Memorial Association" to secure the ground on which the battle was fought, to mark out the positions is held by the different commands of which compose the Union Army, to preserve the lines and lineaments of the battle-field, and to protect the monuments to be erected thereon; and $1,500 for a monument to each separate command engaged in battle.

[Pg. 53]

Let us not forget that the patriotism of the State is not represented by money only. She furnished for the armies of the United States to repress the rebellion and to hold the government four hundred and forty eight thousand eight hundred and fifty men of whom there were engage in this ninety-two separate commands. She furnished more men for the army, appropriated more money to hand down to posterity the memory of their battle and erected more monuments of the battlefield than any other State in the Union.
        It is a high honor to have among those who were engage in this battle. It's a source of self-gratulation that were are the survivors of those who fought and died here and of profound gratification that this monument will preserve and hand down t o posterity the name of this regiment and the part which it bore in this battle and it is a cheering and in spiriting thought that when our mortal lives shall be ended and we shall be ended and we shall join our comrades who join our comrades who died here, this monument will hand down to future ages the name, history and services of our regiment; and when the inscriptions on this monument are read, the patriotism, courage, suffering, and sacrifices which helped to secure the victory that crowned this battle.
In this battle of the troops from our State, 77 officers and  888 enlisted men were killed; 288 officers and 3,737 enlisted men were wounded; and 69 officers and  1,708 enlisted men were captured or missing. There is abundant reason therefore why we should be proud of our comrades, living or dead, who participated in this battle, proud of our state for liberty and munificence which she has manifested toward them. This, the Empire State, is great in population, great in wealth, great in material resources, great in enlightenment; but greater in the men and money which she furnished to put down the rebellion and uphold the government, and in the generous and bounteous hand with which she as provided for the comfort of the survivors, and to perpetuate the memory of those who died.
        We are reminded by this beautiful and magnificent National Cemetery, with its inspiring monuments, erected on the very ground occupied by us, and in which, after the battle we buried our dead, of the paternal care of the United States government for those who died in its defense.

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Not only in this particular is this paternal regard manifested, but in the pensions that have been granted to those who suffer from wounds or from disease contracted in its military service, and to the widows and families of the dead, for the loss of those on whom they relied for support. More than this. The surviving soldiers, under the rules and regulations of the government, are a favored class and first to be remembered in the dispensation of the honors and official emoluments it has to bestow.
        What prouder title can one have to hand down to his children and those who come after him, than that he was a soldier in the gigantic war of the rebellion; of whom it is recorded that, when secession lifted its hydra head and rebellion threatened the integrity of the government and the perpetuity of the Union, he sprang to arms and voluntarily enrolled himself in the army raised for its defense, and boldly marched to the front to encounter danger and death. Do not your hearts, comrades, swell within you with thankfulness when you reflect that you were such soldiers, that you belonged to the army that maintained the government and saved the Union; and that it was your privilege and good fortune to take part in the battle which we now commemorate; and do you not feel a sense of superiority over those who, from inability or want of courage, or lack of patriotism, you left behind you? When this Generation shall have passed away, and other Generations shall occupy their places and visit this battle-field, what more eloquent eulogy, what more fitting epitaph, can they have, who sleep the last steel beneath the green sod that lies above them in yon cemetery, than is there inscribed in imperishable letters: "These are the soldiers of the Union, army who fought and fell on the bloody, but victorious battle-field of Gettysburg?" And we, who survive this battle and the fatigues and dangers of the campaigns that followed, do we not experience a feeling of exultation and solemn joy, when we reflect that we will be remembered when we are gone; that on our tombstones will be inscribed: "Here lies one who was a soldier in the 136th Regiment;" and that our comrades while living and their descendants after them when they are gone, will annually chant requiems to our memory and strew flowers over our graves?

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Let us rejoice therefore that we are here. Let us be glad that it is permitted us to take part in this dedication. Let us remember with reverential thoughts the dead who died here, and let us return to our homes with feelings subdued and chastened by the solemnity in the occasion, with renewed determination to discharge the obligations which rest on us as citizens of this great Union to preserve and to the best of our ability and strive to make it now, and for all time, "the land of the free and the home of the brave."
        Whit vivid recollections rush upon and fill our memories as we stand on this consecrated ground. The long and weary march from Stafford Court-House in the State of Virginia, which preceded the battle; the bivouac at Emmettsburg; the battle announcement from army headquarters that we were in the vicinity of the rebel army and that a great battle was impending; the fatiguing march on hot, dusty, 1st day of July, the battle-field; the booming of cannon, toward the sound of which we marched, indicating that the battle was already opened; the announcement which met us on our march, that the 1st Corps with Gen. Reynolds had been killed by the enemy and that order to hurry forward to reinforce the 1st Corps, then contending with overwhelming numbers; our arrival and taking position on the ground where this cemetery now is, covered by the graves of those who fell in the battle which followed; the full view of the conflict on yonder hills Gettysburg ; the rattle of musketry and the rapid discharge of artillery; the repulse and rout of the 1st and 3d Division, of the 11th Corps, the retreat of  the 1st Corps, badly damaged and weakened, within our lines on Cemetery Ridge, the halting of the victorious enemy in Gettysburg village; the deploy of their 2d Division of the 11th Corps, in column by company on Cemetery Hill, with Buford's Cavalry deployed in front, successfully deceiving the enemy as to the strength of our forces; the presence on the ground of Gen. Hancock who led us to anticipate an attack, by inquiring if this regiment was reliable; the arrival on the Emmettsburg Road of Gen. Sickles, with the advanced guard of the 3d Corps; the arrival of Gen. Meade on the field; the cessation of the battle at about five o'clock, P. M.; the anxiety that was felt, and the urgency that was apparent for the concentration of the whole army. The second day opens bright and fair. There is a lull along the opposing lines

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All is anxious expectation. The rattle of musketry and the rapid discharge of cannon tell us that the battle is raging on our left. The "Peach Orchard," the "Wheat Field" and "Little Round Top" are the scenes of the conflict. The attack upon our right, weakened by taking troops to reinforce the left; the success of the enemy in getting possession of our intrenchments on Culp's Hill; and the attack in the evening on the 11th Corps so gallantly repulsed. Night closed the conflict. The rebel attack is everywhere repulsed, our lines preserved, and Little Round Top saved. The enemy retires to his camp, discomfited and disheartened; and shouts of victory run along our lines. Thus ended the second day.
        On the morning of the third day, the fight commences on our right. Word is brought into our lines from Gen. Ewell that he will break our lines on our right, or perish in the attempt. His threat was an idle one. He makes the attempt. He is repulsed, driven out of the intrenchments, he had taken the night before. Our lines are intact from right to left. All now understand that Lee will attack us, and make his most powerful effort to break our lines on Cemetery Ridge, and drive us from our position. Each side prepared for the conflict. All along Seminary Ridge are seen the enemy's batteries deployed. Opposing him, our artillery is in position along Cemetery Ridge. At one o'clock, the discharge of a cannon near Gettysburg, gives the signal and the enemy's artillery opened all along their line. Our artillery replies. A most terrific cannonade, the recollection of which is burned in our memories, continues for two hours. Deadly missiles fill the air, and shells burst all around us. The fire of the enemy is concentrated on Cemetery Hill. Suddenly the firing on our side ceases not because it was silenced, but by order. Lee's attacking columns then emerge from beyond woods on Seminary Ridge. Gallantly they marched to the assault. Onward in battle array they come. Their ranks are riddled by grape shot and shells from our artillery which reopened, and bullets from the muskets of our infantry. The scene is awfully grand, magnificently sublime. The rebels fall, as autumnal leaves fall from a forest tree, and cover the ground. In our minds eye we see it now as we saw it then. Memory vividly recalls it. I will not attempt to describe it. It is indelibly impressed on our minds. No one, but those who participated in it, can appreciate this grand awful and sublime scene. The final assault the supreme effort of Lee's army was made and repulsed.

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The battle of Gettysburg is fought and won. But, at what a sacrifice! Of the Union army, 547 officers and 2,816 men were killed, 1,137 officers and 13,430 men, wounded, and 182 officers and 5,253 men captured, mostly on the second day, making the total casualties 22,960. The confederate casualties as near as can be ascertained were 2,592 killed, 12,706 wounded and 5,150 captured; total, 20,448. This, probably, does not cover the enemy's losses. From many of his commands engaged in the battle, no report of casualties has been obtained. It is supposed that his losses were much greater. The records of the prisoners of war, on file in Washington, bear the names of 12,227 confederate prisoners captured at and around Gettysburg July 1 to 5 inclusive.
 The battle of Gettysburg was the culminating of the Southern rebellion. The Confederate States never recovered from its shock of that defeat. The secession serpent was scorched, can not killed. He still raised his crest stood at bay, and, for two years more, resisted the attacks of the Union army. But he was put on the defensive, and gallantly resisted, until out and exhausted.
        This monument record the fact that the fact that the 136th Regiment, in October following this battle, was transferred to the army of the Cumberland, then operating against Bragg's army  at Chattanooga, in Tennessee.
        Vividly memory calls up, and reproduces the marches we made, and the battles we fought in that southern campaign. The march down Lookout Valley; the night fight opposite Chattanooga; the successful assault upon the enemy posted on Smith's Hill: the battle above the clouds upon Lookout Mountain, defeat of the enemy on Missionary Ridge, the march to Knoxville and back; the Atlanta campaign, the bloody assault delivered at Resaca; the battles and conflicts at Dallas, Culp's Farm, Gilgal Church, Kenesaw Mountain; the assault of Hood's army, Peach Tree Creek, then after the capture of Atlanta; the march to the sea; the capture of Savannah, the march through South and North Carolina; and the battle of Bentonville, the last battle of the war in which this regiment took part; the surrender of the armies under Lee and Johnson; the final suppression of the rebellion, and the march through Virginia to Washington.

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Thus terminated the military career of the 136th Regiment. Then the regiment was mustered out, with a reputation for good conduct, sound discipline and unflinching bravery, second to none in the army. The survivors went to their respective homes, and mingled with their families and friends in civil life, from whom they had been separated. It was the good fortune of this regiment, never to have met with a repulse. Although in many battles, it took no steps backward. During its services it never had what is known in army circles as a soft place, where the men could wear white gloves and paper collars. It was always found in the front, where the two armies impigned, where the fighting was hottest and the danger deadliest. The blood of its fallen heroes is mingled with the soil of every State, from Maryland to Mississippi. The National cemeteries contain but few of the bodies of the dead of our regiment. Loving hands have removed them from the field where they fell, and from the hospitals, where they died, to local cemeteries and graveyards where their families resided, and where their relatives are buried. Wherever they lie, they are not forgotten.

            "On flames eternal camping ground,
              Their silent tents are spread,
            And glory guards with solemn round,
              The bivouac of the dead."

        Though the rebellion was conquered; though the result of the war redounded to the glory of the Union arms; though the doctrine of secession has, by the high and convincing argument of arms, been suppressed and condemned: though we devoted our aid and our services to preserve the Union, to conquer the armed force that endeavored to subvert it; though "grim-visaged war has smoothed his wrinkled front;" though the flag of the Union floats peacefully over every foot of territory within the bounds of the United States; though through the length and breadth of our land prosperity seems to abound, and though life and liberty to all seem to be secure, yet our duties as citizens and soldiers did not end with the war, and have not ended, after the lapse of twenty-five years, "in these piping times of peace." The stability of the government rests upon the intelligence, honesty and patriotism of the people, of which the volunteer soldiers form so large and influential a part.

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It is for us so to discharge the responsible duties of citizens, as to preserve the peace; to cultivate fraternal feelings of good neighborhood and friendship, with all the States. Those who wore the confederate gray, are no longer our enemies, but fellow-citizens, entitled to kind and fraternal feelings. The passions and enmities created and fostered by the war, should be forgotten and buried out of sight, so that whenever our southern brethren shall come to this battle-field, and view this cemetery of the dead, and these monuments erected thereon, it will be with no feelings of mortified pride, or the resentful sentiments of a conquered people; but of lofty patriotism, rather, as they reflect upon the heroism displayed and bravely evidenced by two highly organize and brave armies, composed of soldiers enrolled from a people of the same lineage, and same nation that the conflict of these armies did not grow out of any hostility or enmity of the north against the south, but was the mighty effort of our common government to hold all the States of the Union within its jurisdiction, and to prevent its disruption; and to compel those who attempted to overturn it, to come home, as it were, to their father's house and partake of the benefits of one common government organized and administered by a united people. To foster this feeling to prevent enmities and hostile rivalries between the different sections of our now united states, is a duty that belongs especially to the survivors of the armies of the Union that conquered the rebellion. While they here and elsewhere dedicate monuments to the memory of their dead comrades, they should not forget, that they should consecrate themselves to the sacred duty of fostering the preservation of peace, friendship and good feeling with those whom they once regarded as rebels and enemies, with whom they once had heroic combats in the deadly conflict of arms. The thoughts so forcibly and eloquently expressed by our martyred president; on these very grounds in dedicating this cemetery to those who fell on this battlefield, speak in as impressive and admonitory tones now, to those who survive the war as they did, to those whom they were addressed, while rebellion was still rampant.
        "Fourscore and seven years ago, our fathers brought forth upon this continent a new nation, conceived in the proposition that all men are created equal. We are now engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any other nation, so conceived, and so dedicated, can long endure.

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We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field as a final testing place for those who here gave their lives that the nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate; we cannot consecrate; we cannot hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it far above our power, to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember, what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us, the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work, which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here, dedicated to the great task remaining before us, that, front these honored dead, we take increased devotion to that cause, for which they gave the last full measure of devotion; that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain; that this nation, under God shall have a new birth of freedom; and that government of the people, by the people and for the people, shall not perish from the earth."
        While we, as survivors of the war, should be advocates of peace, fraternal feeling and good Will among all the States, we should not forget the principles upon which the war was conducted, and in the prosecution of which the people of the north poured out their blood and treasure with an unstinted hand. The Southern States were slave States, and had been such from the foundation of the government. To protect this institution from the antislavery sentiment of the people of the Northern States, and their right to extend it into free territory, the Southern States seceded from the Union, and submitted the question of freedom or slavery to the arbitrament of arms. They were beaten in the contest. The result of tire war abolished slavery. The Constitution of the United States now provides "that neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except for crime whereof the party shall be duly convicted, shall exist within the United States or in any place subject to their jurisdiction." Freedom prevails through out the land. The sentiment contained in the Declaration of Independence, that "all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights, among which are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness;" which before the war existed only in theory, by the war has become an accomplished fact.

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The perpetuity of a republican form of government depends upon the enactment and strict enforcement of laws for the protection of the rights and liberty of each and every citizen of the State and Nation. This government derives its just powers from the consent of the governed, and one of the most important rights that should be safely guarded and protected is the right of each and every citizen, on whom the right of suffrage is conferred, without hindrance or opposition to deposit his vote in the ballot box at every election, and freely to express his choice in the selection of their officers of the government and the principles by which the government should be guided and controlled. The provision or the Constitution of the United States, that "the right of citizens of the United States to vote, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States, or any State, on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude should be sedulously enforced. Free and fair elections and an honest count are absolutely the perpetuity of the government; and when, by law or by the combinations of individuals, a class of citizens is prevented from voting by reason of race, color, or previous condition of servitude or for any reason or for no reason; the very fundamental principle of the government is invaded and its existence endangered. Such a wrong will prove a canker in the body politic, which will gradually eat into its very vitals and produce dissolution, If this wrong is allowed to prevail, then "the government of the people, for the people and by the people" will surely, SURELY, "perish from the earth."
        We have experienced the dangers and horrors of war, We have seen the blood of our comrades poured out like water, to prevent the disruption of the Union and to "proclaim liberty throughout the land." Baptized in blood, we are clothed with the authority and commissioned to be preachers and advocates of peace and universal freedom; and while we dedicate this monument to the honored dead of our regiment, let us consecrate ourselves the cause for which they died. Let us keep in view the necessity for the enforcement of all the laws and the honor and prosperity of the whole country. Let us endeavor, by voice and influence, to propagate the doctrine of loyalty to the union of the states and its government. Let our principles and our works be seen and known of all men. Let us inscribe on our banner "The rights guaranteed by the Constitution, must and shall be protected." "The government must and shall be maintained." "The Union must and shall be presented."

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So shall our National standard remain untarnished, and its galaxy of stars undiminished, increased rather, as time rolls on. In the language of that eminent statesman and eloquent senator, Daniel Webster, "When our eyes shall be turned for the last time to behold the sun in the heavens, may we not again see him shining on the broken and dishonored fragments of a once glorious Union; on States dissevered, discordant, belligerent; on a land rent with civil commotions and drenched in fraternal blood. Let the last lingering glance rather behold the gorgeous ensign of the republic, now known and honored throughout the world, still full high advanced, its arms and trophies streaming in their original luster, not a stripe erased or polluted, not a single star obscured bearing for its motto everywhere spread all over in characters of living light blazing on all its ample folds, as they float over the sea and over the land in every wind under the whole heavens, now so dear to every American heart, 'LIBERTY AND UNION, NOW AND FORRVER, ONE AND INSEPARABLE.'"